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Michael Rätzel
Michael Rätzel

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Persistence in Kalmit - April 2019 Edition

This post was originally published at https://michaelrä
It reflects the state of Kalmit in April 2019. As the project is young, I would not be surprised to find substantial changes later.

This guide assumes you already know how state changes work in Elm applications. To learn about the role of the update function as used here, have a look at The Elm Architecture (TEA) animation by lucamug. Note that his illustration contains 'view' and 'DOM' parts which are specific to client-side applications and not used here.

Persistence for development and operation

Immediate automatic persistence is one of the main features of the Kalmit web host. Every update of the application state is immediately persisted.

What does 'immediate automatic persistence' mean exactly? Let's break this down and define these terms.

  • Why persistence? After the server application has confirmed or reported a transaction to an external party, it should remember the resulting state. Kalmit records every change of the application state, to support consistent continuation even after sudden shutdown of the hosting machine. Since server applications run for months and years, such an interruption is bound to happen sooner or later. When the system starts up again, the application state is restored automatically.
  • Immediately means before other effects from an update become observable. The commands emitted by the update function are only applied after the state from the same update is saved. For example, when a client receives an HTTP response from your server, you know the new state of the server is already persisted.
  • I use the attribute automatic to clarify that the implementation of this persistence requires no attention by the app developer, as the Kalmit web host takes care of it. Since the app state itself is persistent, considering a database in the application code is not necessary.

To learn about configuration and operation, see the guide on How to Configure and Deploy Your Kalmit Web App.

Under the hood - how it works

After clarifying what guarantees the runtime offers to support development and operation, the remainder of this guide illustrates what happens under the hood to make this possible and performant.

Recovering After Unexpected Shutdown

During operation of the process, the system records the sequence of events (sometimes called 'messages' in Elm lingo) entering the process. Events are appended to a composition log, contained in composition records. Each composition record also contains the SHA256 hash of the previous composition record. These references from one record to another form a chain enabling complete traceability. A reader can determine the original order of the processed events using the hash references, even if the records have been shuffled around in the meantime.

On startup, the Kalmit web host uses the composition log to restore the process state. It reads the sequence of events and replays the updates to compose the process state again.

For an automated test covering the restoration of the process state, see the method Restore_process_state_over_compositions in the implementation.

Optimizing for Faster Restore

For real-world applications, it is not practical to depend on replaying the whole history every time we want to restore a process state. Even more so since restore is not only used for disaster recovery but also for experimentation and performance profiling.
Besides the time it takes for replaying the composition, a growing composition chain takes up more and more storage space.

To solve both the restore time and storage space problems, Kalmit also stores reductions of the composition chain at regular intervals. The reduced value equals the process state derived from the reduced composition chain. When performing a restore, the composition chain is not anymore read back to the beginning of history, but only up to the last written and available reduction record. Since the earlier part of the composition log is not needed anymore for restoration, it can be truncated, freeing up storage space.

The automated test Restore_process_state_from_combination_of_reduction_and_compositions in the implementation demonstrates the recovery of process states from truncated composition logs, with the help of reductions.

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