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Michael D. Callaghan
Michael D. Callaghan

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Introduction to TypeScript (for Experienced Developers)

At my day job, I was asked by my leadership to provide an introduction to TypeScript, Angular, and Node to a group of experienced software developers. Many of these folks are "Senior" or higher, a few with more years of experience than I have. Despite their combined 200+ years of development, they have not used these technologies. This post is Part 1 of what I intend to show them: An Introduction to TypeScript for Experienced Developers.

TypeScript Playground

To help internalize the concepts we're about to see, consider opening a browser to This website lets you enter TypeScript in one text area, and see the corresponding JavaScript instantly. It also provides helpful feedback in the case of TypeScript errors. I find it very handy to understand what's going on during the TypeScript transpilation process.


The first thing to understand about TypeScript is that -- surprise -- it has types. It supports the basic types you would expect, such as strings and numbers. You can provide the type explicitly, as in the top examples. Or you omit the type and supply a value instead. If you provide a variable with a value, then TypeScript will infer the type automatically.

// Explicit Type Declaration
let isDone: boolean = false;
let decimal: number = 6;
let hex: number = 0xf00d;
let binary: number = 0b1010;
let octal: number = 0o744;

// Implicit Type Declaration
let isDone = false;
let decimal = 6;
let hex = 0xf00d;
let binary = 0b1010;
let octal 0o744;
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Don't be fooled, however. Type inference still means the variable has a type; you simply did not need to set it. Trying to assign a number to a string will still be an error.


TypeScript includes support for strings. You can use either single- or double-quotes for string constants, but you should be consistent. Many teams prefer one or the other, and use tools to enforce that preference.

let color: string = 'red';
let fullName = "Bob Bobbington";
let age = 37;
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A third type of quote, the backtick, is used to create templated strings. The sentence variable in this example is a three line string – yes, a templated string can include line breaks. The expression inside the ${ } is evaluated and that value replaces the entire ${ } construct. It is interesting to see what a template string transpiles to in JavaScript: an old-fashioned string assignment with the expected concatenations.

let sentence = `Hello, my name is ${ fullName }.
I'll be ${ age + 1 } years old next month.`;
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TypeScript supports arrays. Here we are creating list as an array of numbers, as indicated by the square brackets following the type. This was not necessary, of course, as the value on the right side of the equal sign clearly indicates that it is an array of numbers. Most of the time, you only want to set the type explicitly if you are not also providing a value at the same time.

let list: number[] = [1, 2, 3];
let list = [1, 2, 3];
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Enumerations, or Enums, allow you to provide a set of human-readable values, which represent the only legal values a variable can contain. In this case, I have defined an enum named Color, which contains three values: Red, Green, and Blue. A constant or variable of this type is only allowed to take on one of those three values. As you can see, to use the value on the right side of an assignment, you need to specify the Enum name, followed by a dot and then the enum value.

Attempting to set a non-existent value is an error.

enum Color {Red, Green, Blue}
const green: Color = Color.Green;

const purple = Color.Purple; // Error!
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Interfaces are supported as a pure TypeScript construct, and do not compile to any sort of JavaScript whatsoever. Go ahead and enter an interface definition into the TypeScript plaground.

Don't let that fool you into thinking that they aren't useful.

An interface can be used to enforce the shape of data being passed into a function, or to help when initializing a strongly-typed object from an object literal. The interface defined here consists of four string values, and requires that any object defined as a Member contain an email address, a first name, and a last name. The phone number is optional, denoted by the question mark at the end of the field name.

Using interfaces for data objects will help the TypeScript compiler help you prevent common typos when initializing objects, without resorting to building complete classes where they aren't strictly necessary.

interface Member {
  email: string;
  firstName: string;
  lastName: string;
  phone?: string; // The ? indicates this is optional
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Object and Array Literals

For example, imagine we want to initialize an array of Member objects. Specifying the type explicitly as Member[] will let the TypeScript compiler know to check that every object literal provided matches the Member interface definition. Notice that I am not providing a phone number, as that field was marked as optional in the interface.

const allMembers: Member[] = [
  {email: '', firstName: 'Mike', lastName: 'Smith'},
  {email: '', firstName: 'Bob', lastName: 'Johnson'},
  {email: '', firstName: 'Debbie', lastName: 'Jones' },
  {email: '', firstName: 'Carol', lastName: 'Brown'}
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Had Member been defined as a class, we would need to use its constructor to define new Member objects, which would require more code, and end up a lot less readable than this method.


TypeScript also provides concrete classes. Here is a hypothetical class implementation of that same Member interface. As you can see, it is a lot more code, and in no way is it any more readable than simply using the interface.

class MemberImpl implements Member {
  email: string;
  firstName: string;
  lastName: string;
  phone?: string;

  constructor(email: string,
              firstName: string,
              lastName: string,
              phone: string = '') { = email;
    this.firstName = firstName;
    this.lastName = lastName; = phone;
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My general recommendation is not to use a class unless and until you have code that needs to be added to it. I would argue even then that you think twice before adding code to a data object.

Code such as validation be done in a separate utility class. Leave your data objects clean, but that is a topic for another day.


Like many other modern languages, TypeScript supports Generics. This allows you to create common code that operates the same, regardless of the type passed to it. Illustrated here, we show a potential interface representing a stack of objects, consisting of three functions: pop, push, and length.

interface Stack<T> {
  pop(): T;
  push(item: T);
  length(): number;
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Notice the angle brackets containing a single T in the interface definition. This declares the interface as being a generic, with T representing the compile-time type. Using the T is a common convention, but it can be any unused identifier. The function pop() returns a single object of that type; push() accepts an item parameter of the same type. The length() function returns a single number.

Below you can see the creation of two variables of type Stack, each passing a different type. As you may guess, you cannot pass a parameter of the wrong type to any of its functions.

let numbers: Stack<number>;
let names: Stack<string>;
names.push('Mike'); // OK
names.push(5); // Error
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Arrow Functions

TypeScript supports arrow functions, which can be used in place of the anonymous functions you may be used to. In the examples shown here, we are calling the window's setTimeout function to delay for five seconds, and then show an alert.

window.setTimeout(function() {
  alert('It has been five seconds!');
}, 5000);
window.setTimeout(() => {
  alert('It has been five seconds!');
}, 5000);

window.ondblclick = (ev: MouseEvent) => {
  // `this` refers to the class
  this.mouseX = ev.clientX;
  this.mouseY = ev.clientY;
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At first glance, you are probably wondering what the big deal is. We removed the keyword function and added an equal sign and a greater-than sign (that is the arrow). This yields a grand total savings of three characters, so why bother, right?

In my mind, the most important aspect of arrow functions is the fact that the anonymous function to the right of the arrow does NOT redefine the this variable. If you've ever been bitten by JavaScript redefining this inside your functions, you will appreciate that behavior. Now you can write event handlers inside of a class, and still refer to class variables properly, simply by referring to them with the this object inside your event handler arrow function.


TypeScript supports promises, so you don not need to rely on an external library such as Bluebird.

A Promise is a guarantee that a function will complete at some unknown time in the future. The classic example of this is an HTTP call. When you make an HTTP request, you are waiting for the remote server to return data to you. If you wait for that reply, your code is stuck and cannot do anything else, including responding to user interaction. Because of that, many asynchronous functions return a promise instead of the actual result. When the function finally does complete, the promise is said to "resolve." If there is an error, the promise is said to "reject." The way you handle that in code is straightforward, but odd if you haven't seen it before.

function getMyIpAddress(): Promise<string> {
  return fetch('')
    .then(response => response.json())
    .catch(error => console.log(error));

  .then(ip => console.log(`Your IP address is: ${ip}`))
  .catch(error => console.log(error));
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Here we see a simple implementation of a function to retrieve the public facing IP address of the browser in which it is running. Notice we are combining multiple concepts here. The function returns a promise of type string. The calling function calls fetch, which also returns a promise. However, it also calls two more functions on that returned promise. The then function accepts a function to be called when the promise itself has resolved. In this example, I am passing an arrow function that converts the response to json, and returns that value. I am using a shortcut here in that if an arrow function only returns the results of a single expression, you can omit both the return keyword and the semi-colon. The then function itself returns a promise, which I use to call its catch function. catch also accepts a function to be called in the event of an error. Here I am providing another arrow function, which accepts the error object and logs it.

Essentially, what is happening here is that the URL provided is requested. At some point in the future, one of two things will happen.

  1. Either the HTTP call succeeds, at which point it is "resolved", and then function passed to then() is called.
  2. Or the HTTP call fails, the promise is "rejected", and the function passed to catch() is called.

Finally, notice also that the getMyIpAddress() function itself returns a promise, so calling it will look very similar. This is a common pattern you will see repeated often in TypeScript.

Promises - async/await

An alternative pattern to working with promises is to use async and await. Any function marked with the keyword async can call await on a promise, allowing the code to appear more imperative and hopefully a little easier to read.

In this example, I have rewritten getMyIpAddress() and its client with async and await. No more .then() or .catch(). Instead, the functionality looks and reads exactly like a function without any asynchronous calls. However, this is purely an illusion, as you can see if you paste that code into the TypeScript Playground.

async function getMyIpAddress(): Promise<string> {
  const response = await fetch('')
  return response.json();

try {
  const ip = await getMyIpAddress();
  console.log(`Your IP address is: ${ip}`);
catch(error) {
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When the fetch function is called with the await keyword, the getMyIpAddress function exits immediately. When fetch resolves successfully, the result of the promise is set as the value of the response constant, and then execution continues with the next line of code. If the promise rejects, the error will be thrown as an exception, which is caught higher up.

Likewise, the call to getMyIpAddress works the same way. Execution is halted at that line (but the application keeps running as normal). When the promise returned by getMyIpAddress resolves, its response is set as the value of the constant ip, and execution picks up from that point. Any exceptions throw will be caught in the catch block.

Using async and await is wonderful in that your code looks more traditional, but you should never forget there are promises underneath the magic.

Some are More Equal Than Others

When are values equal? The answer may surprise you. While not specific to TypeScript, this topic has bitten many new JavaScript and TypeScript developers. Consider the following example.

console.log('1' == 1); // true
console.log('' == 0); // true
console.log('1' == [1]); // true
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If you expected those all to be false, then this explanation is for you. If you are following along in the TypeScript playground, you will notice that it warns you not to do those things.

The problem is that JavaScript will coerce from one type to another to make the comparison, even if that is not what you want or expect. The solution is to use === instead of ==, which says not to use coercion. Thus, each of the following lines return the expected value of false.

console.log('1' === 1); // false
console.log('' === 0); // false
console.log('1' === [1]); // false
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It is recommended that you use === for comparisons, and most teams will use a tool to ensure it.

What About var?

You may have noticed that I did not use the var keyword in any of my examples. TypeScript, along with more recent versions of JavaScript, introduce two new ways of declaring variables (and constants), respectively, let and const.

The important difference to note is that objects declared with var are "function-scoped", whereas those declared with let are "block scoped." Consider this example.

for (var i=0; i < 100; i++) {
  if (i % 3 === 0) {
  if (i % 5 === 0) {
  if (i % 5 && i % 3) {

console.log(i); // 100
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In this case, you might expect i not be legal, given that it was defined as part of the for loop. But because var is function-scoped, it is defined anywhere in the function in which it appears, even if it were declared really deeply.

Had we used let instead of var, the generated JavaScript will be identical, but the TypeScript compiler will flag the use of i in console.log to be an error. The recommendation is to use let instead of var in your TypeScript code.

The other new keyword, const, works exactly like let, in that the object defined will be block-scoped. However, with const you must provide a value. Further, once declared, its value can never be changed.

const myName = 'Mike';
myName = 'Bob'; // Error - cannot redefine
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This rule applies only to the named object, and not any of its members (in the case of a complex object or array). For example, you can manipulate the mebers of an array. You can also add, change, or remove properties to an object. You simply cannot reassign its value.

const mike: Member = { email: '', firstName: 'Mike', lastName: 'Smith' }; = 'mike';

// These are fine
const allMembers: Member[] = [];

// Errors - may not redefine constants
allMembers = []; 
mike = { email: '', firstName: 'Bob', lastName: 'Johnson' }; 
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What Next?

That's all for now, but there is a lot more to TypeScript. For more information, visit

Feedback Appreciated

Do you have any comments or questions? Did I make any mistakes in this post? Let me know on Twitter. I'm @walkingriver.

Cross-posted from the WalkingRiver Blog

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