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Jason Yu
Jason Yu

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JavaScript Range How to create range in Javascript

range is a function that basically takes in a starting index and ending index then return a list of all integers from start to end.

The most obvious way would be using a for loop.

function range(start, end) {
    var ans = [];
    for (let i = start; i <= end; i++) {
        ans.push(i);
    }
    return ans;
}
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As a fan of FP, let's come up with an recursive solution. So the base case is obviously when the start and end are the same, the answer would simply be [start].

function range(start, end) {
    if(start === end) return [start];
    // recursive case
}
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Now take the leap of faith, assume that range(start, end) will just work. Then how do we solve the problem range(start, end)? Simple! Just do [start, ...range(start + 1, end)].

So combining both, we get

function range(start, end) {
    if(start === end) return [start];
    return [start, ...range(start + 1, end)];
}
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A lot more elegant than the for-loop solution in my opinion. But we could even go further if we use new Array(n) which creates an array with n elements.

If we have an n element list, we could build a range from it by mapping each element to its index, i.e. arr.map((_, i) => i).

However, according to https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/Reference/Global_Objects/Array/map#Description, map will not call for unassigned element. This mean we need to initialise the new Array(n) before mapping. One standard technique is to use fill. The final result is the following.

function range(start, end) {
    return (new Array(end - start + 1)).fill(undefined).map((_, i) => i + start);
}
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We could also make use of Array.from to create range:

function range(start, end) {
  return Array.from({ length: end - start + 1 }, (_, i) => i)
}
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Thank you Step for mentioning about efficiency when handling large ranges, which essentially build a huge array. We could have a more efficient way of doing this by using generators.

function* range(start, end) {
    for (let i = start; i <= end; i++) {
        yield i;
    }
}
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We could use this generator in a for...of loop (which would be very efficient) or use an array spread to retrieve all values (note that this essentially builds the array which is essentially the same as the non-generator approaches.)

for (i of range(1, 5)) {
    console.log(i);
}
/* Output
 * 1 2 3 4 5 */

[...range(1, 5)] // [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
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Since I always try to avoid for loops, we could also define the generator recursively as follows.

function* range(start, end) {
    yield start;
    if (start === end) return;
    yield* range(start + 1, end);
}
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Could you think of some cooler method to achieve this?

Discussion (50)

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namirsab profile image
Namir • Edited

I like this way:

const range = (start, end) => {
    const length = end - start;
    return Array.from({ length }, (_, i) => start + i);
}
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As array from works with arrayLike structures and receives a second optional argument mapFn, it's a nice candidate to build range.

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johnboy5358 profile image
John

Yes, excellent solution.

This, slimmed down, version also works...

const range = (start, end, length = end - start) =>
  Array.from({ length }, (_, i) => start + i)

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mbrookes profile image
Matt

Almost.

Try:

const range = (start, end, length = end - start + 1) =>
  Array.from({ length }, (_, i) => start + i)
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> range(0,2)
[ 0, 1, 2 ]
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kerafyrm02 profile image
kerafyrm02 • Edited

const range = (start, end) => Array.from({length: end}, (_, i) => start + 1);

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johnboy5358 profile image
John

Sorry kerafyrm02, but that does not produce a range.

If I run range with range(1,50) I get [2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,...]

const range = (start, end) => Array.from({length: end}, (_, i) => start + 1); console.log(range(0,20))
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kerafyrm02 profile image
kerafyrm02 • Edited

let r = (s, e) => Array.from('x'.repeat(e - s), (_, i) => s + i);

Ok here ya go... even shorter. :D

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johnboy5358 profile image
John

Rock, paper, scissors... 68 chars, you've nailed it!

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kerafyrm02 profile image
kerafyrm02

lol., made range to r.. so even shorter :D

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johnboy5358 profile image
John • Edited

Trust me to bump into a js golfer.

Next you'll be telling me that you're dropping the let keyword and just leaving r on the global object!!

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ycmjason profile image
Jason Yu Author

haha! nice solution John!

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johnboy5358 profile image
John

Well, thank you so much for saying!

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perrydbucs profile image
Perry Donham • Edited

If you're going to use => might as well go all in... (line break for readability on dev.to)

const range = (start, end) => new Array(end - start + 1)
.fill(undefined).map((_, i) => i + start)

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ycmjason profile image
Jason Yu Author

I am quite against writing all functions as arrow functions. The reason being that arrow functions are not bind-able and it refers to the this from the outer scope. I feel that it is designed to prevent us writing var self = this; and refer to self in a callback function. So I tend to write arrow functions only when it is a callback or when it is a one-off function. Also if we use arrow function instead of proper function declaration in this case, we will lose the advantage which function hoisting provides. This means range might not be accessible by some earlier parts of our code. But it is all down to personal preference, do tell me what you think.

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perrydbucs profile image
Perry Donham

I don't like ambiguity in code. When I'm reviewing code and have to stop and figure out what this is referring to, it makes me frown; with arrow functions I always know exactly what this is. The 'swap this and that' pattern in JS always struck me as a hack. One of the big wins of arrow functions is eliminating the this ambiguity.

I have a similar feeling for hoisting. I understand why it is part of the language, but it always feels like a path to ruin when I have to rely on some behind-the-scenes reshuffling by the interpreter to get my code to run.

All that said, you are correct that there are situations in which arrow functions are not appropriate, which also make me crazy. Having two ways to write functions just adds confusion. "We recommend using arrow functions everyhwere. Oh, sorry, was that a constructor? Write that one this way instead..."

I can't wait to start seeing code in review that's built with templated classes. Maybe ES7 will introduce header files...

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ycmjason profile image
Jason Yu Author • Edited

Haha! I totally understand what you mean. But still since ES6 introduces class we should really move away from using function as a constructor. As soon as it is consistent in a team then it's fine.

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perrydbucs profile image
Perry Donham • Edited

Also, I'm a big fan of using variable names that describe what they are (even for internal functions), so (line break for readability on dev.to)
const range = (start, end) => new Array(end - start + 1)
.fill(undefined).map((value, index) => index + start)

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ycmjason profile image
Jason Yu Author

On the other hand, I am a big fan of Haskell. And we tend to use _ to refer to variables which we don't use in the function. But I do agree with you that having meaningful names is a good practice and could help readability.

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perrydbucs profile image
Perry Donham • Edited

Even in Haskell, _ is a bad idea :) Think about the poor intern trying to learn the language while debugging your code. (And it isn't just Haskell...I did a lot of Perl back in the day, which at it best can look like line noise).

BTW since you are a fan of Haskell, I ran across this article the other day that you might enjoy, describing how to structure JS function with Haskell-styl currying.

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nycdude777 profile image
Rick Ellis • Edited

I liked your recursive generator. How about something like this:

Number.prototype.to = function* (end) {
  const start = this;
  const step = end > start ? 1 : -1;
  const fn = function* (n) {
    let next = start + step * n;
    yield next;
    if (next === end) return;
    yield* fn(n + 1);
  };
  yield start;
  yield* fn(1);   
}

const asc = [...(1).to(5)];
const dsc = [...(5).to(1)];

console.log(asc); // [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
console.log(dsc); // [5, 4, 3, 2, 1]
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ycmjason profile image
Jason Yu Author

Haha! I like this idea!

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pinksynth profile image
Sammy Taylor

This is great, I wish this would make its way into the spec.

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Daniel Boll

I'm a little late for the discussion 😅 but I found the different ways interesting, I ended up getting this one. Is it valid?

const range = (start, end, length = end - start + 1) => [...Array(length).keys()].map(d => d + start) 
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ycmjason profile image
Jason Yu Author

Looks great to me!

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davidchase profile image
David Chase

Why not get really wild and crazy :P ?

1st define a unfoldr

const unfoldr = (f, seed, xs = [], next = f(seed)) =>
   next ? unfoldr(f, next[1], xs.concat(next[0])) : xs

then define a range in terms of unfold

const range = (from, to) =>
   unfoldr(seed => seed > to ? false : [seed, seed + 1], from)

excellent article btw, keep them coming :)

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teraspora profile image
John Lynch

I just use a one-liner recursive arrow function in ES6; note, it doesn't check but you should only pass it integers else it will never get to a == b so it will blow the stack!



let range = (a, b) => a>b ? range(b, a).reverse() : (a==b ? [a] : range(a, b-1).concat(b));
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ycmjason profile image
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Jason Yu Author

Are you actually using this in production code? 😂😂

You realise how inefficient this is right? 😂😂

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ycmjason profile image
Jason Yu Author

I have adapted Namir's method (see comments). And it is probably the most efficient.

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josefrichter profile image
Josef Richter

The recursive one is really nice. Can be shortened to:

const range = (s, e) => e > s ? [s, ...range(s + 1, e)] : [s];
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Also this is another approach, + easier to handle descending sequences too:

const range = (s,e) => e > s ? Array(e - s + 1).fill(0).map((x, y) => y + s) : Array(s - e + 1).fill(0).map((x, y) => - y + s);
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Ighor Jesse • Edited

This is an Awesome string of code you've written. I'm partial to Python3 behavior of range though. Made a few minor adjustments yours. Better to steal like an artist then build from scratch.

function* range(start=0, end=undefined, step=1) {    
    if( arguments.length === 1) {end = start, start = 0}    

    [...arguments].forEach(arg => {    
        if( typeof arg !== 'number') {throw new TypeError("Invalid argument")}                               
    })    
    if( arguments.length === 0) {throw new TypeError("range requires at least 1 argument, got 0")}    

    if(start >= end) return                                                                                                                                     
    yield start    
    yield* range(parseInt(start + step), end, step)    
}

// Use Cases
console.log([...range(5)])

console.log([...range(2, 5)])

console.log([...range(2, 5, 2)])
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stepchud profile image
Step Chud

Might be inefficient to create an array for large ranges, and only supports range of integers (no dates). Have you seen Ruby's Range class? ruby-doc.org/core-2.2.0/Range.html
You could still implement toArray() and offer a covers() function.

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ycmjason profile image
Jason Yu Author

Yes! You are right! I will add a generator implementation as well which should solve this problem! ;D

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stepchud profile image
Step Chud

I'd like to see the generator implementation!

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ycmjason profile image
Jason Yu Author

What do you think about it? I have implemented.

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johnboy5358 profile image
John • Edited

It rather depends, Jason, on what you mean by cooler.

If you only needed range to handle approx. 6000 iterations then I think a recursive range function is pretty cool, but slow:

const range = (s,e) => (s === e) ? [s] : [s, ...range(s+1,e)]

But, if you need a much bigger range and fast executuion then do something like this:

const range = (s=0,e=10,r=[]) =>
  {while(e >= s){ r.push(s); (e>=s)? s++ : s--; } return r }

And if you don't like the arrow function, then it's easy to convert to a standard es5 style function.

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chronaeon profile image
Micah Dameron

Thanks for this article. I find your first answer to be the most intuitive, and it works great for my situation.

function loopASequenceAgain(start, end) {
  // create a loop which loops from start to end
  var ans = [];
  for (let i = start; i <= end; i++) {
  // log current value to console
      console.log(i); 
      ans.push(i);
  }
  return ans;
}
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bryistheguy profile image
Bryan Ryan

The for loop is by far the easiest to read and also by far the most efficient. Your last example was literally more than 15 times slower than the for loop. Far too many developers these days are trying to get all fancy when the simple solution is much better.

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bigzude profile image
Big-Zude

After reading through this helpful discussion this what I came up with, I added a condition if the start point of the range is greater than the end point. This my very first contribution

function range(s, e) {
  var arr = [];
  for (let i = s; i <= e; i++) {
      arr.push(i);
  }
  return  s > e ? Array(s - e + 1).fill(0).map((x, y) => - y + s):arr;
}
console.log(range(10,1)
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mihailoff profile image
George Mihailov

Why nobody is wondering why this is not part of the standard library?

php.net/manual/en/function.range.php
ruby-doc.org/core-2.5.1/Range.html
docs.python.org/3.3/library/stdtyp...

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jprando profile image
Jeudi Prando • Edited
/// declaration
(s,e)=>[...Array(e-s+1)].map((_,i)=>s+i)
/// use
((s,e)=>[...Array(e-s+1)].map((_,i)=>s+i))(5,9)
/// output
[5, 6, 7, 8, 9]
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😉🤩✨✨✨

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keithpjolley profile image
keith p. jolley

☝️ is what i was looking for. tweaked it slightly:

((e, s=0, d=1)=>[...Array(e-s)].map((_,i)=>(s+i)*d))(5,0,1/4)
[0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1]
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lqj profile image
QJ Li
function range(start, end) {
  return [...Array((end - start) + 1).keys()].map(val => val + start);
}
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petr001 profile image
Petr Odut

Or one-liner:

const range = (start, end) => [...Array(end - start + 1)].map((_, i) => start + i)
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repen profile image
Andrey

Good job

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perrydbucs profile image
Perry Donham

Jason, just curious, what's your concern about looping? I don't have a reference, but I would think that the various interpreters (especially V8) would optimize / unroll them.

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ycmjason profile image
Jason Yu Author

It's just personal taste I guess. I think code with less loops are more readable.

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andresporras3423 profile image
Oscar Andrés Russi Porras

Like this:
[...Array().keys()];
this way you get the range from 0 til -1

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ayobamimichael profile image
AyobamiMichael

Thanks bro, it was helpful.

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abdullahshafiq63 profile image
Abdullah Shafiq

I think this code is not going to work with float values. like generating a range like [0.01, 0.02, 0.03 ...]

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vibatious profile image
Love Varshney • Edited

What does _ meant in map function?

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ycmjason profile image
Jason Yu Author • Edited

Just a variable name. Has no special meaning to the language.