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Soroban Contracts 101: Single Offer Sale

Hi there! Welcome to my fourteenth post of my series called "Soroban Contracts 101", where I'll be explaining the basics of Soroban contracts, such as data storage, authentication, custom types, and more. All the code that we're gonna explain throughout this series will mostly come from soroban-contracts-101 github repository.

In this post, i will explain about Soroban Single Offer Sale example contract. This contract provided a feature to the seller, enabling them to establish an offer for selling token A to numerous buyers in exchange for token B.

The Contract Code


use soroban_sdk::{contractimpl, contracttype, unwrap::UnwrapOptimized, Address, BytesN, Env};

mod token {
    soroban_sdk::contractimport!(file = "../soroban_token_spec.wasm");

pub enum DataKey {

// Represents an offer managed by the SingleOffer contract.
// If a seller wants to sell 1000 XLM for 100 USDC the `sell_price` would be 1000
// and `buy_price` would be 100 (or 100 and 10, or any other pair of integers
// in 10:1 ratio).
pub struct Offer {
    // Owner of this offer. Sells sell_token to get buy_token.
    pub seller: Address,
    pub sell_token: BytesN<32>,
    pub buy_token: BytesN<32>,
    // Seller-defined price of the sell token in arbitrary units.
    pub sell_price: u32,
    // Seller-defined price of the buy token in arbitrary units.
    pub buy_price: u32,

pub struct SingleOffer;

How this contract should be used:
1. Call `create` once to create the offer and register its seller.
2. Seller may transfer arbitrary amounts of the `sell_token` for sale to the
   contract address for trading. They may also update the offer price.
3. Buyers may call `trade` to trade with the offer. The contract will
   immediately perform the trade and send the respective amounts of `buy_token`
   and `sell_token` to the seller and buyer respectively.
4. Seller may call `withdraw` to claim any remaining `sell_token` balance.
impl SingleOffer {
    // Creates the offer for seller for the given token pair and initial price.
    // See comment above the `Offer` struct for information on pricing.
    pub fn create(
        e: Env,
        seller: Address,
        sell_token: BytesN<32>,
        buy_token: BytesN<32>,
        sell_price: u32,
        buy_price: u32,
    ) {
        if {
            panic!("offer is already created");
        if buy_price == 0 || sell_price == 0 {
            panic!("zero price is not allowed");
        // Authorize the `create` call by seller to verify their identity.
            &Offer {

    // Trades `buy_token_amount` of buy_token from buyer for `sell_token` amount
    // defined by the price.
    // `min_sell_amount` defines a lower bound on the price that the buyer would
    // accept.
    // Buyer needs to authorize the `trade` call and internal `transfer` call to
    // the contract address.
    pub fn trade(e: Env, buyer: Address, buy_token_amount: i128, min_sell_token_amount: i128) {
        // Buyer needs to authorize the trade.

        // Load the offer and prepare the token clients to do the trade.
        let offer = load_offer(&e);
        let sell_token_client = token::Client::new(&e, &offer.sell_token);
        let buy_token_client = token::Client::new(&e, &offer.buy_token);

        // Compute the amount of token that buyer needs to receive.
        let sell_token_amount = buy_token_amount
            .checked_mul(offer.sell_price as i128)
            / offer.buy_price as i128;

        if sell_token_amount < min_sell_token_amount {
            panic!("price is too low");

        let contract = e.current_contract_address();

        // Perform the trade in 3 `transfer` steps.
        // Note, that we don't need to verify any balances - the contract would
        // just trap and roll back in case if any of the transfers fails for
        // any reason, including insufficient balance.

        // Transfer the `buy_token` from buyer to this contract.
        // This `transfer` call should be authorized by buyer.
        // This could as well be a direct transfer to the seller, but sending to
        // the contract address allows building more transparent signature
        // payload where the buyer doesn't need to worry about sending token to
        // some 'unknown' third party.
        buy_token_client.transfer(&buyer, &contract, &buy_token_amount);
        // Transfer the `sell_token` from contract to buyer.
        sell_token_client.transfer(&contract, &buyer, &sell_token_amount);
        // Transfer the `buy_token` to the seller immediately.
        buy_token_client.transfer(&contract, &offer.seller, &buy_token_amount);

    // Sends amount of token from this contract to the seller.
    // This is intentionally flexible so that the seller can withdraw any
    // outstanding balance of the contract (in case if they mistakenly
    // transferred wrong token to it).
    // Must be authorized by seller.
    pub fn withdraw(e: Env, token: BytesN<32>, amount: i128) {
        let offer = load_offer(&e);
        token::Client::new(&e, &token).transfer(

    // Updates the price.
    // Must be authorized by seller.
    pub fn updt_price(e: Env, sell_price: u32, buy_price: u32) {
        if buy_price == 0 || sell_price == 0 {
            panic!("zero price is not allowed");
        let mut offer = load_offer(&e);
        offer.sell_price = sell_price;
        offer.buy_price = buy_price;
        write_offer(&e, &offer);

    // Returns the current state of the offer.
    pub fn get_offer(e: Env) -> Offer {

fn load_offer(e: &Env) -> Offer {

fn write_offer(e: &Env, offer: &Offer) {, offer);

mod test;
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Here's a brief explanation of the SingleOffer contract code:

  • Imports token functionality from soroban_token_spec.wasm using soroban_sdk::contractimport
  • Defines a DataKey enum with an Offer variant to represent the single offer storage key
  • Defines an Offer struct to hold the details of the offer: seller address, sell/buy token addresses, and sell/buy prices
  • Defines a SingleOffer unit It implements a contractimpl for SingleOffer with the following functions:

create - Creates an initial offer. Requires seller authentication, checks that non-zero prices are used, and stores the offer.
trade - Allows trading at the current offer price. Requires buyer authentication, loads the offer, creates token clients, computes the amount to trade, checks that the amount is acceptable, and transfers tokens.
withdraw - Allows the seller to withdraw tokens from the contract. Requires authentication and transfers tokens.
updt_price - Allows the seller to update prices. Requires authentication, checks that non-zero prices are used, loads the offer, updates the prices, and stores the updated offer.
get_offer - Simply loads and returns the current offer.

  • Defines load_offer function, that loads the single offer from storage using the DataKey::Offer key, and unwraps the Result to panic if the offer is not found. It's called from various functions in the contract to load the current offer details.
  • Defines wrote_offer funtion, It stores the given offer in storage under theDataKey::Offerkey. It's called from thecreatefunction to initialize the offer, and theupdt_price` function to update the offer.

Contract Usage

Here's the usage for the SingleOffer contract:

  1. The seller calls create function to initialize the offer with the token pair and initial prices.
  2. The seller transfers sell tokens to the contract to fund the offer using sell_token function.
  3. Buyers call trade to buy sell tokens at the current price. The contract will handle transfers buy/sell tokens between the buyer, contract, and seller.
  4. The seller can call updt_price to update the offer price.
  5. The seller calls withdraw funtion to withdraw any remaining sell tokens from the contract.


Overall, the contract shows capability of Soroban contract to allows the seller to create a single token offer, fund it with sell tokens, update the price, and withdraw remaining tokens, while allowing buyers to trade at the current price. Stay tuned for more post in this "Soroban Contracts 101" Series where we will dive deeper into Soroban Contracts and their functionalities.

Top comments (1)

andrew_melbourne_60c8aaaa profile image
Andrew Melbourne

What is the "sell_token function" referenced here?

The seller transfers sell tokens to the contract to fund the offer using sell_token function.