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Asswin CR
Asswin CR

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String Builder


String Builder is a separate class just like String, which allows us to modify the values(mutability).

Need of String Builder

As we know that Strings are immutable ,because of which
each and every time we need to create an object and that object will have no reference in later cases while running the loop , hence there will be huge memory wastage and due to this we use String Builder.


public class SB {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        StringBuilder builder=new StringBuilder();
        for(int i = 0;i<26;i++){
            char ch=(char) ('a'+i);

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Code Explanation:

  • This is a simple code which demonstrates the use of String Builder class to print all alphabets from a-z, and to show how efficient it is in space and time complexity.
  • So inside the main function, we create a StringBuilder using "new" keyword, just like how we use to create for Strings.
  • Now inside the for loop we take ASCII value of a and add it to the iterating variable i and finally typecast the ASCII value to a character and assign it to ch . * In next step we add( append ) each character to the builder and finally print it after converting them to String format by calling toString() Method.

Code Analysis

1.Now if we analyze the Time Complexity of using Strings for the above example:


  • Here, Size of each items are 1+2+3+4...+26 (N). This can be represented as N(N+1) /2 .

  • After eliminating constants and less dominating terms , we finally obtain O(N^2).

  • All of these large Strings will have no reference variable [Wastage of Space].

2.Now if we analyze the Time Complexity of using String Builder for the above example:

  • Here instead of creating new object every time , it makes changes in the existing object itself[like how Arrays does], hence saving memory space and time. For example:

["abc"+d -> "abcd"]

  • Due to this the Time Complexity is O(N).

Top comments (2)

stealthmusic profile image
Jan Wedel • Edited

One important thing that I had to learn: Because SB uses an array to immediately copy all strings from append into, you might exceed this array length. When that happens, SB creates a new array and copies everything over. This results in doubling the memory instantly and can lead to OutOfMemeryErrors when using for an unbounded or non-deterministic number of items to add (for example creating a CSV out of a stream). I had to write my own class that keeps all references of appends in memory and counts the number or required characters. On toString() call, it creates a single array and copies everything over.

asswin_07 profile image
Asswin CR

Thanks for the point!