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Combine reducers in a React / Redux application

cesareferrari profile image Cesare Ferrari ・2 min read

How to organize individual reducers with combineReducers

We have seen how reducers in a React/Redux application take the existing state and an action and return a new, updated state object that can then be displayed by the application.

Reducers know how to update the state by looking at the type of action coming in. If the action is of type UPDATE_TITLE, for example, they run logic that updates the title. If the action is of type TURN_TITLE_GREEN, they run logic that makes the title green, and so on.
The way reducers implement this logic is by using conditional statements. One popular way is to use a switch statement. Here's an example:

const titleReducer = (state = initialState, action) => {

  switch (action.type) {
      return {
        titleColor: 'green'
    case UPDATE_TITLE: 
      return {
        title: action.payload
    default: return state;

In this case, our reducer manages changes to the application title, so it makes sense that one single reducer would handle all cases related to the title.
But what if we have unrelated aspects of our state to handle. What if our application had separate functionalities, like a user registration, and a login functionality?

Even though both these two functionalities deal with users, they have different responsibilities and, for the sake of making our application simpler and easier to maintain, it would be better to have separate reducers that handle these two functionalities separately.

We could name our reducers loginReducer and registerReducer and put them into separate files inside the reducers directory.
But when we create a new Redux store with the createStore function, we can only pass one reducer to it. How are we supposed to fit two or more reducers as an argument to our function?

It turns out that Redux lets us combine multiple reducers into one that can be passed into createStore by using a helper function named combineReducers.

The way we combine reducers is simple, we create one file per reducer in the reducers directory. We also create a file called index.js inside the reducers directory.
In the index.js file we import the combineReducers function from Redux and we also import all the individual reducer files.

We then invoke combineReducers and pass to it as an argument an object that contains all the individual reducers.
combineReducers will combine all the reducers passed to it into a single reducing function that can then be exported as default.
Here's what it looks like:

import { combineReducers } from 'redux';
import { registerReducer } from './registerReducer';
import { loginReducer } from './loginReducer';

export default combineReducers({

Remember that this syntax:


is equivalent to this:

  registerReducer: registerReducer,
  loginReducer: loginReducer

Now we can simply import the default reducer as rootReducer in index.js and use it to create the Redux store:

import rootReducer from './reducers';

const store = createStore(rootReducer);

That's how we can combine multiple reducers into one single reducer to be used to generate the Redux store.

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cesareferrari profile

Cesare Ferrari


I write daily about front-end and back-end web development.


Editor guide

I need to Add AND Delete do I create Actions ?
different file?
export const deletePost=(id)=>{

Different file?
export const AddPost=(id)=>{


I love combined reducers! Makes life pretty easy!