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AWS Global Infrastructure

coffeecraftcode profile image Christina Gorton ・4 min read

AWS Global Infrastructure

Map Overview

AWS Global Infrastructure Map
AWS has multiple data centers all over the world.

This is so you, the customer, can access their services no matter where you are located around the globe.

Key points:

AWS Serves over a million active customers in more than 190 countries

Currently there are:

  • 61 Availability Zones (AZs)
  • 22 Geographic Regions
  • A vast network of Edge Locations

Availability Zones: are distinct locations within an AWS Region that are engineered to be isolated from failures in other Availability Zones.

Geographic Regions: a physical location around the world where AWS clusters data centers.

Edge Locations: where end users access services located at AWS.

Regions

Region: a Geographically Distinct Location, which has multiple data centers.

Availability Zones(AZs) = data centers.

Map of AWS Regions and Availability Zones
Key Points:

  • Every region is physically isolated and independent of every other region in terms of location, power, and water supply.
  • This isolation/independence helps with "fail over"
  • If your servers go down in one locations or region you can count on other regions not being affected.
  • When AWS launches a new services they typically launch it in US East first.
  • When you are working with billing in AWS all that billing information appears in the U.S. East region
  • It doesn't matter if you are utilizing resources in different regions, the billing will always end up in US East one.

You can head over to AWS's Global Infrastructure page to learn more about Regions and see maps of their locations.

North American Regions:

US East (Northern Virginia) Region:

  • Availability Zones:
  • 6 Launched 2006

US East (Ohio) Region

  • Availability Zones: 3
  • Launched 2016

US West (Oregon) Region

  • Availability Zones: 4
  • Launched 2011
  • Local Zone: 1
  • Launched 2019

US West (Northern California) Region

  • Availability Zones: 3
  • *Launched 2009

GovCloud (US-West) Region

  • Availability Zones: 3
  • Launched 2011

GovCloud (US-East) Region

  • Availability Zones: 3
  • Launched 2018

Canada (Central) Region

  • Availability Zones: 3
  • Launched 2016

South American Regions

South America (São Paulo) Region

  • Availability Zones: 3*
  • Launched 2011

Europe/Middle East/ Africa Regions

Europe (Frankfurt) Region

  • Availability Zones: 3
  • Launched 2014

Europe (London) Region

  • Availability Zones: 3
  • Launched 2016

Europe (Paris) Region

  • Availability Zones: 3
  • Launched 2017

Middle East (Bahrain) Region

  • Availability Zones: 3
  • Launched 2019

Europe (Ireland) Region

  • Availability Zones: 3
  • Launched 2007

Europe (Milan) Region

  • Availability Zones: 3
  • Launched 2020

Europe (Stockholm) Region

  • Availability Zones: 3
  • Launched 2018

AWS Africa (Cape Town) Region

  • Availability Zones: 3
  • Launched 2020

Asia Pacific Regions

Mainland China (Beijing) Region

  • Availability Zones: 2

Asia Pacific (Sydney) Region

  • Availability Zones: 3
  • Launched 2012

Asia Pacific (Tokyo) Region

  • Availability Zones: 4
  • *Launched 2011

Asia Pacific (Seoul) Region

  • Availability Zones: 3
  • Launched 2016

Mainland China (Ningxia) Region

  • Availability Zones: 3

Asia Pacific (Osaka) Local Region1

  • Availability Zones: 1
  • Launched 2018

Asia Pacific (Mumbai) Region

  • Availability Zones: 3
  • Launched 2016

Asia Pacific (Hong Kong) Region

  • Availability Zones: 3
  • Launched 2019

To view what services are available in each Region you can check out AWS's Region Table

Availability Zones

Availability Zones are often referred to as AZs.

An AZ is a data center owned and operated by AWS in which their service is run.

The use of AZ’s give customers the ability to operate production applications and databases that are more:

  • highly available
  • fault tolerant
  • scalable

Key Points:

  • Data Centers always run more than one AZ.
  • This allows users to practice high availability. Customers who care about the availability and performance of their applications want to deploy these applications across multi AZ's in the same region.
  • There are specific AWS services that require the use of more than one AZ to function properly.
  • Multi AZ- refers to distributing your instances across multiple availability zones so that they fail over.
  • The latency between AZs in a Region is extremely low. On average it is below 10 milliseconds.

Edge Locations

Key Points:

  • Edge locations allow users to send data and receive data from AWS faster.
  • An Edge Location is a data centre owned by a trusted partner of AWS
  • They have a direct connection to the AWS network.
  • These data centers are not used for computing or storage.
  • It's a faster way to connect to AWS where AWS may not have a data centre yet.
  • Services that would utilize Edge Locations would be:
    • Cloud-Front- a CDN
    • Route53- for DNS
    • A.P.I. Gateway- a way of connecting your Lambda functions with an end point
    • S3 - where you want to get your files uploaded to S3 a lot faster.
  • Allows for low latency

Edge Cases typically outnumber Availability Zones(AZ).

If you check out the Regions and AZs map again you can see the Edge Locations represented as blue dots.

GovCloud

Address security and compliance requirements

Key Points:

  • AWS GovCloud Regions allow customers to host sensitive Controlled Unclassified Information and other types of regulated workloads.
  • GovCloud Regions are only operate by employees who are U.S. citizens on U.S. soil.
  • Only accessible to U.S. entities and account state holders who pass a screening process.
  • Customers can architect secure cloud solutions that comply with:

    • Fed*RAMP* High baseline
    • DOJ's Criminal Justice Information Systems (CJIS) Security Policy
    • U.S. International Traffic in Arms Regulations (TAR)
    • Export Administration Regulations (EAR)
    • Department of Defense (DoD) Cloud Computing Security Requirements Guide

    GovCloud Regions are currently only in the US.

    You can view their regions on AWS Map of Regions and Edge Networks.

    You can view more about GovCloud on the official AWS GovCloud page.

Posted on by:

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Christina Gorton

@coffeecraftcode

Open Source Community Manager, Technical Writer, Developer, and Instructor. Courses on Egghead, Design + Code, and Skillshare. https://egghead.io/instructors/christina-gorton

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