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Build a chat app with GraphQL Subscriptions & TypeScript: Part 2

saswatamcode profile image Saswata Mukherjee ・6 min read

In this part, we'll be adding our subscription to our GraphQL API.

What are subscriptions?

Subscriptions are long-lasting GraphQL read operations that can update their result whenever a particular server-side event occurs. Most commonly, updated results are pushed from the server to subscribing clients. For example, a chat application's server might use a subscription to push newly received messages to all clients in a particular chat room.

That's according to the official Apollo Server documentation. Essentially, it allows us to update our clients based on any server-side events. And since subscription updates are usually pushed by the server, they usually use the WebSocket protocol instead of HTTP.

Now that our GraphQL resolvers are working, we can send chats through our mutation and view all the chats which are presently there through our query! However, we also want to be alerted when a new chat arrives and that too in real-time(the exact moment the chat arrived! This is why we need a subscription operation as well!

So let's go ahead and add one! First, we need to set up our server, so that it can handle subscriptions since subscriptions use a completely different protocol from http! Apollo Server makes this setup relatively easy by allowing us to have a completely different endpoint only for our subscriptions.

Setting up our server to handle subscriptions

Open up index.ts and make the following changes

import "reflect-metadata";
import express from "express";
import { ApolloServer } from "apollo-server-express";
import { buildSchema } from "type-graphql";
import { ChatResolver } from "./resolvers/chat";
import http from "http";
import cors from "cors";
import dotenv from "dotenv";


const main = async () => {
  const app = express();
  const httpServer = http.createServer(app);

  app.use(cors({ origin: "http://localhost:3000", credentials: true }));

  const apolloServer = new ApolloServer({
    schema: await buildSchema({
      resolvers: [ChatResolver],
      validate: false,
    subscriptions: {
      path: "/subscriptions",
      onConnect: () => {
        console.log("Client connected for subscriptions");
      onDisconnect: () => {
        console.log("Client disconnected from subscriptions");

    cors: false,

  httpServer.listen(process.env.PORT, () => {
      `Server ready at http://localhost:${process.env.PORT}${apolloServer.graphqlPath}`
      `Subscriptions ready at ws://localhost:${process.env.PORT}${apolloServer.subscriptionsPath}`

main().catch((err) => {
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That's a ton of changes, so let's understand why we made them!

Firstly, we need to pass in a subscriptions object to our apolloServer instance with the endpoint path we want to reserve only for subscriptions as well as functions onConnect and onDisconnect, which will fire every time a client connects and disconnects from the endpoint we specified. And since we're using a middleware integration with Apollo Server and Express, we need to call the installSubscriptionHandlers() method defined by our apolloServer instance.

This leads to a limitation since we can only pass in an instance of http.Server to our installSubscriptionHandlers() method. We can't pass in an instance of express.Application or app as defined here. Thus, we need to define our own httpServer using the baked-in http Node library instead of using the one created for us by Express.

So we import the http module and create a http server based on our express application, i.e, app using the http.createServer(app) method. We call the installSubscriptionHandlers() method and pass in our httpServer.

Finally, instead of using app.listen() we use httpServer.listen(). Both of these methods achieve the exact same thing and return the same type(http.Server), but httpServer now has the required code to handle subscriptions, so we use that instead of app.

On saving and restarting the server, you should see your subscription url get logged in your console, i.e, ws://localhost:9000/subscription. Here ws signifies that the endpoint uses the WebSocket protocol!

Now, that our server can handle subscriptions let's actually add one!

Adding our subscription

Subscription resolvers are similar to queries and mutations but are slightly more complex. We'll be creating a class method as we did previously but with the @Subscription() decorator.

import { Mutation, Query, Subscription, Resolver, Arg } from "type-graphql";
import { Chat } from "../entities/Chat";

const chats: Chat[] = [];

export class ChatResolver {
  @Query(() => [Chat])
  getChats(): Chat[] {
    return chats;

  @Mutation(() => Chat)
    @Arg("name") name: string,
    @Arg("message") message: string
  ): Chat {
    const chat = { id: chats.length + 1, name, message };
    return chat;
    @Subscription({ topics: "CHAT_CHANNEL" })
  messageSent(): Chat {}
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We just created a messageSent() method in our ChatResolver class with a @Subscription() decorator. Thus our new method is now marked as a GraphQL subscription resolver. We have to pass in the name of the topic we wish to subscribe to, in our decorator as well. This can be a single topic, an array of topics, or even a dynamic topic. Since we will only be maintaining one chat channel in our app, we passed in the CHAT_CHANNEL string as our topic.

Triggering subscriptions and receiving payloads

Let's now add in the logic for triggering our subscription topic.

import {
} from "type-graphql";
import { Chat } from "../entities/Chat";

const chats: Chat[] = [];
const channel = "CHAT_CHANNEL";

export class ChatResolver {
  @Query(() => [Chat])
  getChats(): Chat[] {
    return chats;

  @Mutation(() => Chat)
  async createChat(
    @PubSub() pubSub: PubSubEngine,
    @Arg("name") name: string,
    @Arg("message") message: string
  ): Promise<Chat> {
    const chat = { id: chats.length + 1, name, message };
    const payload = chat;
    await pubSub.publish(channel, payload);
    return chat;

  @Subscription({ topics: channel })
  messageSent(@Root() { id, name, message }: Chat): Chat {
    return { id, name, message };
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Again, that's a lot of new code to breakdown!

First, let's try to understand what PubSub is exactly. Apollo Server uses a publish-subscribe (pub/sub) model to track events that update subscriptions. The graphql-subscriptions library included in all apollo-server packages (including middleware integrations) provides a PubSub class as a basic in-memory event bus.

However, do keep in mind that this isn't suitable for production, since it only supports a single server instance. TypeGraphQL uses this PubSub system to define the @PubSub() decorator. For production, other implementations of such a pubsub system are recommended.

In this case, we want to trigger our CHAT_CHANNEL topic whenever a new chat is created, i.e, in our createChat() mutation. So we use the @PubSub() decorator to pass in pubSub as a method parameter, which is of type PubSubEngine. We can now use this to send a payload to all subscribers of the CHAT_CHANNEL topic.

Thus, we use pubSub.publish(channel, chat) method to publish the payload in our topic, in the pubsub system, by passing in our topic name ( channel now has the CHAT_CHANNEL string), and the chat object as arguments.

Since this returns a Promise, we need to use await. This also results in createChat() being an async method which now returns a Promise of type Chat.

Finally, in our subscription method, messageSent(), we use the @Root() decorator to receive the payload from the triggered topic in our pubsub system. For convenience, we made sure the payload is of type Chat which is again returned from our subscription method.

Run your subscription in GraphQL Playground

And that's pretty much it! We now have a complete GraphQL API, with a query, mutation, and a subscription! Let's test this out by heading over to our Playground at localhost:9000/graphql and try running the following.

subscription {
  messageSent {
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While this is running, i.e the play button switches to red and you can see "Listening..." below, switch over to your createChat() mutation tab and create a new chat. You should be able to see the new chat pop up in the window where you left your subscriptions running!

Woohoo! Our subscription works!

Now that our backend is complete, we'll explore how to use all these GraphQL operations in the frontend using React. See you in the next part!


Visit the next post of this series to use your GraphQL server in React!

If you'd like to dig deeper into GraphQL, Apollo Server and TypeGraphQL and discover all the cool things you can make with it, read the official docs,

Apollo Server Docs

TypeGraphQL Docs

GraphQL Docs

Also, here's an awesome list of resources to learn further!

If you get stuck here's the repo with all the code! Visit the part-2 branch to get all the code covered in this post.

For any queries reach out to my socials or GitHub!

Discussion (1)

Editor guide
jackherizsmith profile image
Jack • Edited

I love this thank you!

I think there might be an error at the end of your code in Adding our subscription - the subscription resolver messageSent is of type Chat {} but get the error:

A function whose declared type is neither 'void' nor 'any' must return a value.
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Let me know if this is correct or I have made a mistake :)