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Create Django REST API (Todo APP)

hasone profile image HasOne ・5 min read

In this article, I'm gonna create REST APIs in the Django framework more likely in Django-rest-framework. What I discovered while learning Django is Robust Framework and I sound like "WoW". how, ... wait let's create and I bet you that you will sound the same as I did.

Prerequisite

make sure you've already installed python3.8+, now let's create an isolated environment for our project so it won't hurt our OS. you can install pipenv through your OS package manager like apt, brew or you can do it through the pip3 package

carbon

Get started

Now, create a directory for our Todo app
carbon (1)

let's install the Django framework in the todo directory and activate the virtual environmental
carbon (2)

Boom, we're inside the virtual environmental, if you see parentheses in your command. we should start out by creating the Django traditional project named todo_project and adding the todos app (App is where we create all our code) and migrating our initial database

carbon (3)

In Django, we always need to add a new app inside INSTALLED_APPS. to do so, open up todo/todo_project/settings.py and add at the bottom.

# todo_project/settings.py
INSTALLED_APPS = [
'django.contrib.admin',
'django.contrib.auth',
'django.contrib.contenttypes',
'django.contrib.sessions',
'django.contrib.messages',
'django.contrib.staticfiles',

# Local
'todos', # new app added here
]
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So far so good, let's give it shot, if you've done everything right, you should be able to run the below command without any issue:
run server
,

head over to http://127.0.0.1:8000/ And Boom There you have your first Django project, Awesome. Now let's create a Model; Model is where we create our Database Structure (same is Scheme in NodeJS).

open up your model file todo/todos/models.py:

# todo/todos/models.py

from django.db import models

class Todo(models.Model):
    title = models.CharField(max_length=250)
    body = models.TextField()

    def __str__(self):
        return self.title

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first, we import the models then we created title and body for our Todo-app. CharField is character with max_length, TextField is text (suppose it like textarea in HTML). we have to add Field at the end of everything like Boolean to BooleanField(). and the __str__ return the title when you instance the model.

Now Register the Todo model in the admin todo/todos/admin.py

# todo/todos/admin.py

from django.contrib import admin

from .models import Todo
# Register your models here.


class TodoAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    list_display = ('title', 'body')


admin.site.register(Todo, TodoAdmin)

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list_display will give us the title and body on the admin page in the column, more user-friendly. migrate the charges, every time we made some changes in the model. we have to migrate

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now, create a user for the admin page with username and password, so do it:
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now run the server and head over to http://127.0.0.1:8000/admin:
run server

it'll ask you for credentials, just put what you've created in the previous command. and click on the todos in the right column like below and the list_display magic see here:
Screenshot from 2021-01-29 12-16-12

It's time to install the Django-rest-framework for APIS and CORS lib for CORS problem:
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# todo_project/settings.py
INSTALLED_APPS = [
'django.contrib.admin',
'django.contrib.auth',
'django.contrib.contenttypes',
'django.contrib.sessions',
'django.contrib.messages',
'django.contrib.staticfiles',

# 3rd party
'rest_framework', # new added
'corsheaders', # new added

# Local
'todos',
]

MIDDLEWARE = [
'django.middleware.security.SecurityMiddleware',
'django.contrib.sessions.middleware.SessionMiddleware',
'corsheaders.middleware.CorsMiddleware', # new added
'django.middleware.common.CommonMiddleware',
'django.middleware.csrf.CsrfViewMiddleware',
'django.contrib.auth.middleware.AuthenticationMiddleware',
'django.contrib.messages.middleware.MessageMiddleware',
'django.middleware.clickjacking.XFrameOptionsMiddleware',
]
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and allow the URLs to make a request for the backend and frontend

# new
CORS_ORIGIN_WHITELIST = (
'http://localhost:3000',
'http://localhost:8000',
)
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The next step is to Configure URL for our API endpoints in todo_project/urls.py.

# todo_project/urls.py
from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import path, include

urlpatterns = [
    path('admin/', admin.site.urls),
    path('api/', include('todos.urls'))
]
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we imported todos.urls file, we yet have to create, so let's create todos/urls.py and add these line:

# todos/urls.py

from django.urls import path
from .views import ListTodo, DetailTodo, CreateTodo


urlpatterns = [
    path('<int:pk>/', DetailTodo.as_view()),
    path('', ListTodo.as_view()),
    path('create', CreateTodo.as_view())
]

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we imported the ListTodo, DetailTodo and CreateTodo which we yet have to create these classes. and urlspatterns is where we create our routs. <int:pk> is passing the Primary key as a URL query.

Serializer (JSON)

we need a serializer file to transpile the python queryset to JSON in order to send it over HTTP request. let's go ahead and create a file todos/serializer.py

from rest_framework import serializers
from .models import Todo


class TodoSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    class Meta:
        model = Todo
        fields = ('id', 'title', 'body')

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Importing the Todo Model and exposing the id, title, body field as JSON in the Meta class. model variable is which model we need to transpile and fields is which fields we need to expose. id field is created automatically when adding new object

View

open the todos/views.py file and the logic

from rest_framework import generics
from .serializers import TodoSerializer
from .models import Todo


# Showing the List
class ListTodo(generics.ListAPIView):
    queryset = Todo.objects.all()
    serializer_class = TodoSerializer

# fetching single todo
class DetailTodo(generics.RetrieveAPIView):
    queryset = Todo.objects.all()
    serializer_class = TodoSerializer

# creating one
class CreateTodo(generics.CreateAPIView):
    queryset = Todo.objects.all()
    serializer_class = TodoSerializer

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now run the server and head over to 'http://127.0.0.1:8000/api/create`
run server

Screenshot from 2021-01-29 15-03-00

it will let you create a new todo, and play around with. isn't it cool! we didn't create any logic to create a new todo. this is how it wins. to read more about generics Github Repo: https://github.com/lifeeric/django-rest-api/

Thanks for following along with me, if you found any error, mistake, please fix me I'll be happy!

if you found something for me, let do it together!

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