EFF has a browser profiling tool which illuminates--hands on--known profiling techniques in fingerprinting browsers. Understanding how the few more effective aspects work is interesting and here are a few links to the various related resources, the video is especially useful.
- excellent YouTube video surveying the techniques
- EFF background and tool, also similarly useful AmIUnique.org and BrowserLeaks
- Wikipedia disambiguation on Fingerprint--includes the various possibilities under science+technology
- discussion in various Q&A: 1 suss sock puppets (false online identities), 2 circumvention of fingerprinting and loosely related expectations around privacy