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JavaScript Cheat Sheet

JavaScript Basics

Let’s start off with the basics – how to include JavaScript in a website

You can include JavaScript in your HTML in two ways:

  1. Writing the code in your HTML
  2. Including it as a link to an external file

For the most part, you will include the JavaScript as an external file.

The Script Tag

<script> tag is what we use to includes our JavaScript. It's a lot like the    <link> tag you've already been using to include your CSS files.
><script type="text/javascript">
alert("This alert box was called with the onload event");
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Using the script tag to include an external JavaScript file

To include an external JavaScript file, we can use the script tag with the attribute src. You've already used the src
attribute when using images. The value for the src attribute should be the path to your JavaScript file.

<script type="text/javascript" src="path-to-javascript-file.js"></script>
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This script tag should be included between the

tags in your HTML document.

Including Comments

Comments are important because they help other people understand what is going on in your code or remind you if you
forgot something yourself. Keep in mind that they have to be marked properly so the browser won’t try to execute them.

In JavaScript you have two different options:

  • Single-line comments — To include a comment that is limited to a single line, precede it with //

  • Multi-line comments — In case you want to write longer comments between several lines, wrap it in /* and */ to
    avoid it from being executed

Variables in JavaScript

Variables are stand-in values that you can use to perform operations. You should be familiar with them from math class.

  • var, const, let

You have three different possibilities for declaring a variable in JavaScript, each with their own specialties:

  • var — The most common variable. It can be reassigned but only accessed within a function. Variables defined with var move to the top when the code is executed.
  • const — Can not be reassigned and not accessible before they appear withinthe code.
  • let — Similar to const, the let variable can be reassigned but not re-declared.

Data Types

Variables can contain different types of values and data types. You use = to assign them:

var age = 23

Variables — var x Text (strings) — var a = "init"

Operations — var b = 1 + 2 + 3

True or false statements — var c = true

Constant numbers — const PI = 3.14

Objects — var
name = {firstName:"John", lastName:"Doe"}

There are more possibilities. Note that variables are case sensitive. That
means lastname and lastName will be handled as two different variables.


Objects are certain kinds of variables. They are variables that can have their own values and methods. The latter are
actions that you can perform on objects.

var person = {
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The Next Level: Arrays

Next up in our JavaScript cheat sheet are arrays. Arrays are part of many different programming languages. They are a
way of organizing variables and properties into groups. Here’s how to create one in JavaScript:

var fruit = ["Banana", "Apple", "Pear"];
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Now you have an array called fruit which contains three items that you can use for future operations.

Array Methods

Once you have created arrays, there are a few things you can do with them:

  • concat() — Join several arrays into one indexOf() — Returns the first position at which a given element appears in an
  • array join() — Combine elements of an array into a single string and return the string
  • lastIndexOf() — Gives the last position at which a given element appears in an array
  • pop() — Removes the last element of an array
  • push() — Add a new element at the end

  • reverse() — Sort elements in a descending order

  • shift() — Remove the first element of an array

  • slice() — Pulls a copy of a portion of an array into a new array

  • sort() — Sorts elements alphabetically

  • splice() — Adds elements in a specified way and position

  • toString() — Converts elements to strings

  • unshift() —Adds a new element to the

  • beginning valueOf() — Returns the primitive value of the specified object


If you have variables, you can use them to perform different kinds of operations. To do so, you need operators.

Basic Operators

+ — Addition
- — Subtraction

  • — Multiplication
  • / — Division
  • (...) — Grouping operator, operations within brackets are executed earlier than those outside
  • % — Modulus (remainder )
  • ++ — Increment numbers
  • -- — Decrement numbers
  • Comparison Operators
  • == — Equal to
  • === — Equal value and equal type
  • != — Not equal
  • !== — Not equal value or not equal type
  • > — Greater than
  • < — Less than
  • > = — Greater than or equal to
  • <= — Less than or equal to
  • ? — Ternary operator
  • Logical Operators
  • && — Logical and
  • || — Logical or
  • ! — Logical not
  • Bitwise Operators
  • & — AND statement
  • | — OR statement
  • ~ — NOT
  • ^ — XOR
  • << — Left shift
  • > > — Right shift
  • > > > — Zero fill right shift
  • > > >


JavaScript functions are blocks of code that perform a certain task. A basic function looks like this:

function name(parameter1, parameter2, parameter3) {
// what the function does
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As you can see, it consists of the function keyword plus a name. The function’s parameters are in the brackets and you
have curly brackets around what the function performs. You can create your own, but to make your life easier – there are
also a number of default functions.

Outputting Data

A common application for functions is the output of data. For the output, you have the following options:

  • alert() — Output data in an alert box in the browser window
  • confirm() — Opens up a yes/no dialog and returns true/false depending on user click
  • console.log() — Writes information to the browser console,good for debugging purposes
  • document.write() — Write directly to the HTML document prompt() — Creates a dialogue for user input

Global Functions

Global functions are functions built into every browser capable of running JavaScript.

decodeURI() — Decodes a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) created by encodeURI or similar decodeURIComponent() — Decodes a URI component

  • encodeURI() — Encodes a URI into UTF-8 encodeURIComponent() — Same but for URI components
  • eval() — Evaluates JavaScript code represented as a string
  • isFinite() — Determines whether a passed value is a finite number
  • isNaN() — Determines whether a value is NaN or not Number()

JavaScript Loops

Loops are part of most programming languages. They allow you to execute blocks of code desired number of times with
different values:

for (before loop; condition for loop; execute after loop) {
// what to do during the loop
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You have several parameters to create loops:

  • for — The most common way to create a loop in JavaScript * while — Sets up conditions under which a loop executes do while

If – Else Statements

These types of statements are easy to understand. Using them, you can set conditions for when your code is executed. If
certain conditions apply, something is done, if not – something else is executed.

if (condition) {
// what to do if condition is met
} else {
// what to do if condition is not met
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A similar concept to if else is the switch statement. However, using the switch you select one of several code blocks to


Strings are what JavaScript calls to text that does not perform a function but can appear on the screen.

var person = "John Doe"; In this case, John Doe is the string.

Escape Characters

In JavaScript, strings are marked with single or double-quotes. If you want to use quotation marks in a string, you need
to use special characters:

\' — Single quote \" — Double quote Aside from that you also have additional escape characters:

\ — Backslash \b — Backspace \f — Form feed \n — New line \r — Carriage return \t — Horizontal tabulator \v — Vertical

String Methods

There are many different ways to work with strings:

charAt() — Returns a character at a specified position inside a string charCodeAt() — Gives you the Unicode of a
character at that position concat() — Concatenates (joins) two or more strings into one fromCharCode() — Returns a
string created from the specified sequence of UTF-16 code units indexOf() — Provides the position of the first
occurrence of a specified text within a string lastIndexOf() — Same as indexOf() but with the last occurrence, searching
backward match() — Retrieves the matches of a string against a search pattern replace() — Find and replace specified
text in a string search() — Executes a search for a matching text and returns its position slice() — Extracts a section
of a string and returns it as a new string split() — Splits a string object into an array of strings at a specified
position substr() — Similar to slice() but extracts a substring depending on a specified number of characters
substring() — Also similar to slice() but can’t accept negative indices toLowerCase() — Convert strings to lower case
toUpperCase() — Convert strings to upper case valueOf() — Returns the primitive value (that has no properties or
methods) of a string object

Regular Expression Syntax

Regular expressions are search patterns used to match character combinations in strings. The search pattern can be used
for text search and text to replace operations.

Pattern Modifiers

e — Evaluate replacement i — Perform case-insensitive matching g — Perform global matching m — Perform multiple line
matching s — Treat strings as a single line x — Allow comments and whitespace in the pattern U — Ungreedy pattern
[abc] — Find any of the characters between the brackets
[^abc] — Find any character which is not in the brackets
[0-9] — Used to find any digit from 0 to 9
[A-z] — Find any character from uppercase A to lowercase z
(a|b|c) — Find any of the alternatives separated with |


. — Find a single character, except newline or line terminator \w — Word character \W — Non-word character \d — A digit
\D — A non-digit character \s — Whitespace character \S — Non-whitespace character \b — Find a match at the
beginning/end of a word \B — A match not at the beginning/end of a word \0 — NUL character \n — A new line character \f
— Form feed character \r — Carriage return character \t — Tab character \v — Vertical tab character \xxx — The character
specified by an octal number xxx \xdd — Character specified by a hexadecimal number dd \uxxxx — The Unicode character
specified by a hexadecimal number XXXX Quantifiers n+ — Matches any string that contains at least one n n* — Any string
that contains zero or more occurrences of n n? — A string that contains zero or one occurrence of n n{X} — String that
contains a sequence of X n’s n{X,Y} — Strings that contain a sequence of X to Y n’s n{X,} — Matches any string that
contains a sequence of at least X n’s n$ — Any string with n at the end of it ^n — String with n at the beginning of it
?=n — Any string that is followed by a specific string n ?!n — String that is not followed by a specific string ni

Numbers and Math

In JavaScript, you can also work with numbers, constants and perform mathematical functions.

Number Properties

MAX_VALUE — The maximum numeric value representable in JavaScript MIN_VALUE — Smallest positive numeric value
representable in JavaScript NaN — The “Not-a-Number” value NEGATIVE_INFINITY — The negative Infinity value
POSITIVE_INFINITY — Positive Infinity value

Number Methods

toExponential() — Returns the string with a rounded number written as exponential notation toFixed() — Returns the
string of a number with a specified number of decimals toPrecision() — String of a number written with a specified
length toString() — Returns a number as a string valueOf() — Returns a number as a number

Math Properties

E — Euler’s number LN2 — The natural logarithm of 2 LN10 — Natural logarithm of 10 LOG2E — Base 2 logarithm of E LOG10E
— Base 10 logarithm of E PI — The number PI SQRT1_2 — Square root of 1/2 SQRT2 — The square root of 2

Math Methods

abs(x) — Returns the absolute (positive) value of x acos(x) — The arccosine of x, in radians asin(x) — Arcsine of x, in
radians atan(x) — The arctangent of x as a numeric value atan2(y,x) — Arctangent of the quotient of its arguments ceil(
x) — Value of x rounded up to its nearest integer cos(x) — The cosine of x (x is in radians)
exp(x) — Value of Ex floor(x) — The value of x rounded down to its nearest integer log(x) — The natural logarithm (base
E) of x max(x,y,z,...,n) — Returns the number with the highest value min(x,y,z,...,n) — Same for the number with the
lowest value pow(x,y) — X to the power of y random() — Returns a random number between 0 and 1 round(x) — The value of x
rounded to its nearest integer sin(x) — The sine of x (x is in radians)
sqrt(x) — Square root of x tan(x) — The tangent of an angle Dealing with Dates in JavaScript You can also work with and
modify dates and time with JavaScript. This is the next chapter in the JavaScript cheat sheet.

Setting Dates

Date() — Creates a new date object with the current date and time Date(2017, 5, 21, 3, 23, 10, 0) — Create a custom date
object. The numbers represent a year, month, day, hour, minutes, seconds, milliseconds. You can omit anything you want
except for a year and month. Date("2017-06-23") — Date declaration as a string Pulling Date and Time Values getDate() —
Get the day of the month as a number (1-31)
getDay() — The weekday as a number (0-6)
getFullYear() — Year as a four-digit number (yyyy)
getHours() — Get the hour (0-23)
getMilliseconds() — The millisecond (0-999)
getMinutes() — Get the minute (0-59)
getMonth() — Month as a number (0-11)
getSeconds() — Get the second (0-59)
getTime() — Get the milliseconds since January 1, 1970 getUTCDate() — The day (date) of the month in the specified date
according to universal time (also available for day, month, full year, hours, minutes etc.)
parse — Parses a string representation of a date and returns the number of milliseconds since January 1, 1970 Set Part
of a Date setDate() — Set the day as a number (1-31)
setFullYear() — Sets the year (optionally month and day)
setHours() — Set the hour (0-23)
setMilliseconds() — Set milliseconds (0-999)
setMinutes() — Sets the minutes (0-59)
setMonth() — Set the month (0-11)
setSeconds() — Sets the seconds (0-59)
setTime() — Set the time (milliseconds since January 1, 1970)
setUTCDate() — Sets the day of the month for a specified date according to universal time (also available for day,
month, full year, hours, minutes etc.)

DOM Mode

The DOM is the Document Object Model of a page. It is the code of the structure of a webpage. JavaScript comes with a
lot of different ways to create and manipulate HTML elements (called nodes).

Node Properties

attributes — Returns a live collection of all attributes registered to an element baseURI — Provides the absolute base
URL of an HTML element childNodes — Gives a collection of an element’s child nodes firstChild — Returns the first child
node of an element lastChild — The last child node of an element nextSibling — Gives you the next node at the same node
tree level nodeName —Returns the name of a node nodeType — Returns the type of a node nodeValue — Sets or returns the
value of a node ownerDocument — The top-level document object for this node parentNode — Returns the parent node of an
element previousSibling — Returns the node immediately preceding the current one textContent — Sets or returns the
textual content of a node and its descendants
Node Methods
appendChild() — Adds a new child node to an element as the last child node cloneNode() — Clones an HTML element
compareDocumentPosition() — Compares the document position of two elements getFeature() — Returns an object which
implements the APIs of a specified feature hasAttributes() — Returns true if an element has any attributes, otherwise
false hasChildNodes() — Returns true if an element has any child nodes, otherwise false insertBefore() — Inserts a new
child node before a specified, existing child node isDefaultNamespace() — Returns true if a specified namespaceURI is
the default, otherwise false isEqualNode() — Checks if two elements are equal isSameNode() — Checks if two elements are
the same node isSupported() — Returns true if a specified feature is supported on the element lookupNamespaceURI() —
Returns the namespace URI associated with a given node lookupPrefix() — Returns a DOMString containing the prefix for a
given namespace URI if present normalize() — Joins adjacent text nodes and removes empty text nodes in an element
removeChild() — Removes a child node from an element replaceChild() — Replaces a child node in an element Element
Methods getAttribute() — Returns the specified attribute value of an element node getAttributeNS() — Returns string
value of the attribute with the specified namespace and name getAttributeNode() — Gets the specified attribute node
getAttributeNodeNS() — Returns the attribute node for the attribute with the given namespace and name
getElementsByTagName() — Provides a collection of all child elements with the specified tag name
getElementsByTagNameNS() — Returns a live HTMLCollection of elements with a certain tag name belonging to the given
namespace hasAttribute() — Returns true if an element has any attributes, otherwise false hasAttributeNS() — Provides a
true/false value indicating whether the current element in a given namespace has the specified attribute
removeAttribute() — Removes a specified attribute from an element removeAttributeNS() — Removes the specified attribute
from an element within a certain namespace removeAttributeNode() — Takes away a specified attribute node and returns the
removed node setAttribute() — Sets or changes the specified attribute to a specified value setAttributeNS() — Adds a new
attribute or changes the value of an attribute with the given namespace and name setAttributeNode() — Sets or changes
the specified attribute node setAttributeNodeNS() — Adds a new namespaced attribute node to an element Working with the
User Browser Besides HTML elements, JavaScript is also able to take into account the user browser and incorporate its
properties into the code.

Window Properties
closed — Checks whether a window has been closed or not and returns true or false defaultStatus — Sets or returns the
default text in the status bar of a window document — Returns the document object for the window frames — Returns
all elements in the current window history — Provides the History object for the window innerHeight — The inner
height of a window’s content area innerWidth — The inner width of the content area length — Find out the number
of elements in the window location — Returns the location object for the window name — Sets or returns the
name of a window navigator — Returns the Navigator object for the window opener — Returns a reference to the window that
created the window outerHeight — The outer height of a window, including toolbars/scrollbars outerWidth — The outer
width of a window, including toolbars/scrollbars pageXOffset — Number of pixels the current document has been scrolled
horizontally pageYOffset — Number of pixels the document has been scrolled vertically parent — The parent window of the
current window screen — Returns the Screen object for the window screenLeft — The horizontal coordinate of the window (
relative to the screen)
screenTop — The vertical coordinate of the window screenX — Same as screenLeft but needed for some browsers screenY —
Same as screenTop but needed for some browsers self — Returns the current window status — Sets or returns the text in
the status bar of a window top — Returns the topmost browser window
Window Methods
alert() — Displays an alert box with a message and an OK button blur() — Removes focus from the current window
clearInterval() — Clears a timer set with setInterval()
clearTimeout() — Clears a timer set with setTimeout()
close() — Closes the current window confirm() — Displays a dialogue box with a message and an OK and Cancel button
focus() — Sets focus to the current window moveBy() — Moves a window relative to its current position moveTo() — Moves a
window to a specified position open() — Opens a new browser window print() — Prints the content of the current window
prompt() — Displays a dialogue box that prompts the visitor for input resizeBy() — Resizes the window by the specified
number of pixels resizeTo() — Resizes the window to a specified width and height scrollBy() — Scrolls the document by a
specified number of pixels scrollTo() — Scrolls the document to specified coordinates setInterval() — Calls a function
or evaluates an expression at specified intervals setTimeout() — Calls a function or evaluates an expression after a
specified interval stop() — Stops the window from loading
Screen Properties
availHeight — Returns the height of the screen (excluding the Windows Taskbar)
availWidth — Returns the width of the screen (excluding the Windows Taskbar)
colorDepth — Returns the bit depth of the color palette for displaying images height — The total height of the screen
pixelDepth — The color resolution of the screen in bits per pixel width — The total width of the screen
JavaScript Events
Events are things that can happen to HTML elements and are performed by the user. The programming language can listen
for these events and trigger actions in the code. No JavaScript cheat sheet would be complete without them.

onclick — The event occurs when the user clicks on an element oncontextmenu — User right-clicks on an element to open a
context menu ondblclick — The user double-clicks on an element onmousedown — User presses a mouse button over an element
onmouseenter — The pointer moves onto an element onmouseleave — Pointer moves out of an element onmousemove — The
pointer is moving while it is over an element onmouseover — When the pointer is moved onto an element or one of its
children onmouseout — User moves the mouse pointer out of an element or one of its children onmouseup — The user
releases a mouse button while over an element
onkeydown — When the user is pressing a key down onkeypress — The moment the user starts pressing a key onkeyup — The
user releases a key
onabort — The loading of a media is aborted onbeforeunload — Event occurs before the document is about to be unloaded
onerror — An error occurs while loading an external file onhashchange — There have been changes to the anchor part of a
URL onload — When an object has loaded onpagehide — The user navigates away from a webpage onpageshow — When the user
navigates to a webpage onresize — The document view is resized onscroll — An element’s scrollbar is being scrolled
onunload — Event occurs when a page has unloaded
onblur — When an element loses focus onchange — The content of a form element changes (for ,
and )
onfocus — An element gets focus onfocusin — When an element is about to get focus onfocusout — The element is about to
lose focus oninput — User input on an element oninvalid — An element is invalid onreset — A form is reset onsearch — The
user writes something in a search field (for )
onselect — The user selects some text (for and )
onsubmit — A form is submitted
ondrag — An element is dragged ondragend — The user has finished dragging the element ondragenter — The dragged element
enters a drop target ondragleave — A dragged element leaves the drop target ondragover — The dragged element is on top
of the drop target ondragstart — User starts to drag an element ondrop — Dragged element is dropped on the drop target
oncopy — User copies the content of an element oncut — The user cuts an element’s content onpaste — A user pastes the
content in an element
onabort — Media loading is aborted oncanplay — The browser can start playing media (e.g. a file has buffered enough)
oncanplaythrough — The browser can play through media without stopping ondurationchange — The duration of the media
changes onended — The media has reached its end onerror — Happens when an error occurs while loading an external file
onloadeddata — Media data is loaded onloadedmetadata — Metadata (like dimensions and duration) are loaded onloadstart —
The browser starts looking for specified media onpause — Media is paused either by the user or automatically onplay —
The media has been started or is no longer paused onplaying — Media is playing after having been paused or stopped for
buffering onprogress — The browser is in the process of downloading the media onratechange — The playing speed of the
media changes onseeked — User is finished moving/skipping to a new position in the media onseeking — The user starts
moving/skipping onstalled — The browser is trying to load the media but it is not available onsuspend — The browser is
intentionally not loading media ontimeupdate — The playing position has changed (e.g. because of fast forward)
onvolumechange — Media volume has changed (including mute)
onwaiting — Media paused but expected to resume (for example, buffering)
Animation animationend — A CSS animation is complete animationiteration — CSS animation is repeated animationstart — CSS
animation has started Other transitionend — Fired when a CSS transition has completed onmessage — A message is received
through the event source onoffline — The browser starts to work offline ononline — The browser starts to work online
onpopstate — When the window’s history changes onshow — A element is shown as a context menu onstorage — A Web
Storage area is updated ontoggle — The user opens or closes the element onwheel — Mouse wheel rolls up or down
over an element ontouchcancel — Screen-touch is interrupted ontouchend — User’s finger is removed from a touch-screen
ontouchmove — A finger is dragged across the screen ontouchstart — A finger is placed on the touch-screen
When working with JavaScript, different errors can occur. There are several ways of handling them:

try — Lets you define a block of code to test for errors catch — Set up a block of code to execute in case of an error
throw — Create custom error messages instead of the standard JavaScript errors finally — Lets you execute code, after
try and catch, regardless of the result Error Name Values JavaScript also has a built-in error object. It has two

name — Sets or returns the error name message — Sets or returns an error message in a string from The error property can
return six different values as its name:

EvalError — An error has occurred in the eval() function RangeError — A number is “out of range” ReferenceError — An
illegal reference has occurred SyntaxError — A syntax error has occurred TypeError — A type error has occurred URIError
— An encodeURI() error has occurred The JavaScript Cheat Sheet in a Nutshell JavaScript is gaining much importance as a
programming language. It is increasingly the go-to language for building web properties thanks to its proven track
record and benefits.

Top comments (6)

jaca22 profile image
Jacek Dunikowski • Edited

Nice content, but my eyes are bleeding :D

daddasoft profile image
Dadda Hicham

It's perfect but if there was color for keywords may be a lot better keep going

eltha9 profile image

Good content but, but one thing bugged me ... why did you tag you're post as Java content ... this is not Java but JavaScript ^^

amt8u profile image

I guess the same reason Javascript was renamed from Livescript - To gain popularity 😂

chriscorrigan profile image
Info Comment hidden by post author - thread only accessible via permalink
Chris Corrigan • Edited

I'm guessing this was copy/pasted from somewhere that had formatting.

Like maybe here:

moorthyrm profile image

It is make simple and very clean. Good effort

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