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I will try to group here, in an anatomy atlas, basic notions of functional programming that I find myself explaining often lately into a series of articles.
The idea here is to have a place to point people needing explanations and to increase my own understanding of these subjects by trying to explain them the best I can.
I'll try to focus more on making the reader feel an intuition, a feeling about the concepts rather than on the perfect, strict correctness of my explanations.
 Part 1: Anatomy of functional programming
 Part 2: Anatomy of an algebra
 Part 3: Anatomy of a type class
 Part 4: Anatomy of semi groups and monoids
 Part 5: Anatomy of functors and category theory
 Part 6: Anatomy of the tagless final encoding  Yet to come !
What is a semigroup ?
General definition
Semigroup (and monoid, you'll see later) is a complicated word for a really simple concept.
We'll cover quickly semigroups and we'll explain longer monoids since they are strongly related.
Wikipedia's definition is:
In mathematics, a semigroup is an algebraic structure consisting of a set together with an associative binary operation.
Ok, that sounds a bit abstract, let's try to rephrase it with programming terms:
In the context of programming, a semigroup is composed of two things:
 A type
A
 An associative operation combining two values of type
A
into a value of typeA
, let's call itcombine
 That would be a function with a type signature:
(A, A) => A
 Which is associative, meaning that the order in which you combine elements together (where you decide to put your parenthesis) does not matter

combine(combine(a1, a2), a3) == combine(a1, combine(a2, a3))
witha1
,a2
,a3
values of typeA

 That would be a function with a type signature:
Then it is said that A
forms a semigroup under combine
.
Some examples
Integer under addition
 type:
Int
 operation:
+
Indeed,

+
type here is:(Int, Int) => Int

+
is associative(20 + 20) + 2 == 20 + (20 + 2)
Integers form a semigroup under addition.
Boolean under OR
 type:
Boolean
 operation:

Indeed,


type here is:(Boolean, Boolean) => Boolean


is associative(true  false)  true == true  (false  true)
Booleans form a semigroup under OR.
List under list concatenation
 type:
List[A]
 operation:
++
Indeed,

++
type here is:(List[A], List[A]) => List[A]

++
is associative(List(1, 2) ++ List(3, 4)) ++ List(5, 6) == List(1, 2) ++ (List(3, 4) ++ List(5, 6))
More examples !
 Integers under multiplication
 Booleans under AND
 String under concatenation
 A LOT more.
We'll now explore monoids since they are a "upgraded" version of semigroups.
What is a monoid ?
General definition
Given the definition of a semigroup, the definition of a monoid is pretty straight forward:
In mathematics, a monoid is an algebraic structure consisting of a set together with an associative binary operation and an identity element.
Which means that a monoid is a semigroup plus an identity element.
In our programming terms:
In the context of programming, a monoid is composed of two things:
 A semigroup:
 A type
A
 An associative operation combining two values of type
A
into a value of typeA
, let's call itcombine
 A type
 An identity element of type
A
, let's call itid
, that has to obey the following laws:
combine(a, id) == a
witha
a value of typeA

combine(id, a) == a
witha
a value of typeA

Then it is said that A
forms a monoid under combine
with identity element id
.
Some examples
We could take our semigroups examples here and add their respective identity elements:
 Integer under addition
 With identity element
0
:42 + 0 = 42
0 + 42 = 42
 With identity element
 Boolean under OR
 With identity element
false
:
true  false == true
,false  true == true
false  false == false

 With identity element
 List under list concatenation
 With identity element
Nil
(empty List):List(1, 2, 3) ++ Nil == List(1, 2, 3)
Nil ++ List(1, 2, 3) == List(1, 2, 3)
 With identity element
Whenever you have an identity element for your semigroup's type and combine
operation that holds the identity laws, then you have a monoid for it.
But be careful, there are some semigroups which are not monoids:
Tuples form a semigroup under first (which gives back the tuple's first element).
 type:
Tuple2[A, A]
 operation:
first
(def first[A](t: Tuple2[A, A]): A = t._1
)
Indeed,

first
type here is:Tuple2[A, A] => A

first
is associativefirst(Tuple2(first(Tuple2(a1, a2)), a3)) == first(Tuple2(a1, first(Tuple2(a2, a3))))
witha1
,a2
,a3
values of typeA
But there is no way to provide an identity element id
of type A
so that:

first(Tuple2(id, a)) == a
andfirst(Tuple2(a, id)) == a
witha
a value of typeA
What the hell is it for ?
Monoid is a functional programming constructs that embodies the notion of combining "things" together, often in order to reduce "things" into one "thing". Given that the combining operation is associative, it can be parallelized.
And that's a BIG deal.
As a simple illustration, this is what you can do, absolutely fearlessly when you know your type A
forms a monoid under combine
with identity id
:
 You have a huge, large, massive list of
A
s that you want to reduce into a singleA
 You have a cluster of N nodes and a master node
 You split your huge, large, massive list of
A
s in N sub lists  You distribute each sub list to a node of your cluster
 Each node reduce its own sub list by
combining
its elements 2 by 2 down to 1 final element  They send back their results to the master node
 The master node only has N intermediary results to
combine
down (in the same order as the sub lists these intermediary results were produced from, remember, associativity !) to a final result
You successfully, without any fear of messing things up, parallelized, almost for free, a reduction process on a huge list thanks to monoids.
Does it sound familiar ? That's naively how forkjoin operations works on Spark ! Thank you monoids !
How can we encode them in Scala ?
Semigroups and monoids are encoded as type classes.
We are gonna go through a simple implementation example, you should never have to do it by hand like that since everything we'll do is provided by awesome FP libraries like Cats or Scalaz.
Here are our two type classes:
trait Semigroup[S] {
def combine(s1: S, s2: S): S
}
trait Monoid[M] extends Semigroup[M] {
val id: M
}
And here is my business domain modeling:
type ItemId = Int
case class Sale(items: List[ItemId], totalPrice: Double)
I want to be able to combine all my year's sales into one big, consolidated, sale.
Let's define a monoid type class instance for Sale
by defining:

id
being an emptySale
which contains no item ids, and 0 astotalPrice

combine
as concatenation of item id lists and addition oftotalPrice
s
implicit val saleMonoid: Monoid[Sale] = new Monoid[Sale] {
override val id: Sale = Sale(List.empty[ItemId], 0)
override def combine(s1: Sale, s2: Sale): Sale = Sale(s1.items ++ s2.items, s1.totalPrice + s2.totalPrice)
}
Then I can use a lot of existing tooling, generic functions, leveraging the fact that the types they are working on are instances of monoid.
combineAll
(which is also provided by Cats or Scalaz) is one of them and permit to, generically, combine all my sales together for free !
def combineAll[A](as: List[A])(implicit M: Monoid[A]): A = {
def accumulate(accumulator: A, remaining: List[A]): A = remaining match {
case Nil ⇒ accumulator
case head :: tail ⇒ accumulate(M.combine(accumulator, head), tail)
}
accumulate(M.id, as)
}
val sales2018: List[Sale] = List(Sale(List(0), 32), Sale(List(1), 10))
val totalSale: Sale = combineAll(sales2018) // Sale(List(0, 1),42)
Nota bene: Here, for sake of simplicity, I did not implement combineAll
with foldLeft
so I don't have to explain foldLeft
, but you should know that my accumulate
inner function is foldLeft
and that combineAll
should in fact be implemented like that:
def combineAll[A](as: List[A])(implicit M: Monoid[A]): A = as.foldLeft(M.id)(M.combine)
Voilà !
More material
If you want to keep diving deeper, some interesting stuff can be found on my FP resources list and in particular:
 Scala with Cats  Semigroup and monoid chapters
 Why Spark can’t foldLeft: Monoids and Associativity
 Cats documentation
 Let me know if you need more
Conclusion
To sum up, we saw:
 How simple semigroups and monoids are and how closely related they are
 We saw examples of semigroups and monoids
 We had an insight about how useful these FP constructs can be in real life
 And finally we showed how they are encoded in Scala and had a glimpse on what you can do with it thanks to major FP librairies
I'll try to keep that blog post updated.
If there are any additions, imprecision or mistakes that I should correct or if you need more explanations, feel free to contact me on Twitter or by mail !
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