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Haskell - Look Ma! No Concrete Implementation!

piq9117 profile image Ken Aguilar ・3 min read

This is my post about tagless final encoding. There are many like it, but this one is mine. My tagless final encoding post is my best friend. It is my life. I must master it as I must master my life.

I can't think of a good intro so I modified the Rifleman's Creed. Anyway, the tagless final encoding technique has been very helpful in structuring my programs without being burdened about dependencies so much, because of this I can change dependencies and mostly don't have to re-structure my program. This technique also makes it almost effortless to do unit testing.

Just like my other posts let's do a contrived example.

This is our user story.

  • A command line tool that takes a file path to a text file that contains some text.
  • The content of the input file will be processed, and the text content will be capitalized.
  • The processed text content will then be printed to an output file.

Let's start by creating the representation of our application.

{-# LANGUAGE DerivingStrategies         #-}
{-# LANGUAGE GeneralizedNewtypeDeriving #-}
module AppM where

newtype AppM a
  = AppM
  { runAppM :: IO a
  } deriving newtype ( Functor, Applicative, Monad, MonadIO )

Then, let's define the capabilities of the app based on the made up user story. First, the cli capability.

module Capability.CLI where

class Monad m => ManageCLI m where
  parseCliCommand :: m Command
  interpretCLI :: Command -> m ()

data Command = Command
  { commandInput  :: Text
  , commandOutput :: Text
  } deriving ( Eq, Show )

Next, the capabalities to manipulate files in the file system.

module Capability.File where

class Monad m => ManageFile m where
  getFileContent :: Text -> m Text
  printContent :: Text -> Text -> m ()

Finally, the capability to manipulate text.

module Capability.TextContent where

class Monad m => ManageTextContent m where
  capitalizeContent :: Text -> m Text

With all these capabilities, I think we are ready to assemble our program. So, let's go back to the AppM module. We have to create instances but skip the implementation for now, and use undefined

{-# LANGUAGE DerivingStrategies         #-}
{-# LANGUAGE GeneralizedNewtypeDeriving #-}
{-# LANGUAGE InstanceSigs               #-}
{-# LANGUAGE RecordWildCards            #-}
module AppM where

import           Capability.CLI
import           Capability.File
import           Capability.TextContent

newtype AppM a
  = AppM
  { runAppM :: IO a
  } deriving newtype ( Functor, Applicative, Monad, MonadIO )

startApp :: IO ()
startApp = runAppM $ interpretCLI =<< parseCliCommand

instance ManageCLI AppM where
  parseCliCommand :: AppM Command
  parseCliCommand = undefined

  interpretCLI :: Command -> AppM ()
  interpretCLI Command{..} = do
    file <- getFileContent commandInput
    content <- capitalizeContent file
    printContent commandOutput content

instance ManageFile AppM where
  getFileContent :: Text -> AppM Text
  getFileContent filePath = undefined

  printContent :: Text -> Text -> AppM ()
  printContent outputPath content = undefined

instance ManageTextContent AppM where
  capitalizeContent :: Text -> AppM Text
  capitalizeContent content = undefined

As you can see we were able to assemble our program in interpretCLI without any concrete implementations. When we provide the concrete implementations, we won't get so bogged down by thinking about the entire the program because we've already done that. We only have to think about the concrete implementation of individual capabilities. For example, we just need to think about how to retrieve a file, print a file, etc.

Proceeding to our concrete implementation we can pick optparse-applicative as our cli utility and relude as our prelude.

module AppM where

...
import           Relude
import qualified Data.Text              as T
import           Options.Applicative

instance ManageCLI AppM where
  parseCliCommand :: AppM Command
  parseCliCommand = liftIO 
    $ execParser ( info ( helper <*> parseCommand ) fullDesc )

  interpretCLI :: Command -> AppM ()
  interpretCLI Command{..} = do
    file <- getFileContent commandInput
    content <- capitalizeContent file
    printContent commandOutput content

instance ManageFile AppM where
  getFileContent :: Text -> AppM Text
  getFileContent filePath = readFileText ( T.unpack filePath )

  printContent :: Text -> Text -> AppM ()
  printContent outputPath content = 
    writeFileText ( T.unpack outputPath ) content

instance ManageTextContent AppM where
  capitalizeContent :: Text -> AppM Text
  capitalizeContent content = pure $ T.toUpper content

By using optparse-applicative, here's the implementation of parseCommand

parseCommand :: Parser Command
parseCommand = Command
  <$> strOption ( long "input" <> short 'i' <> metavar "INPUT_FILE" <> help "Input file" )
  <*> strOption ( long "output" <> short 'o' <> metavar "OUTPUT_FILE" <> help "Output file" )

One obvious downside to this is the n^2 instance problem which Vasiliy Kevroletin mentions in his article.

That's it! We import our library code to the Main module and execute the program.

module Main where

import           Relude

import           AppM

main :: IO ()
main = startApp

References

Purescript Halogen Realworld repository

Three Layer Cake by Matt Parson

Introduction to Tagless Final by Vasiliy Kevroletin

Tagles Final Encoding by Juan Pablo Royo Sales

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piq9117 profile

Ken Aguilar

@piq9117

* Functional Programmer * All my posts are cross post from my site https://www.taezos.dev/notes.html

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