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GitLab CI/CD: A guideline to set up your pipeline

prakhil_tp profile image Prakhil ・5 min read

This article is about making a successful CICD for your application using GitLab.

The modern development moves faster and demands more from developers than ever. Tools and concepts around CICD help developers deliver value faster and more transparently.



You might have heard the term CICD which is short for continuous integration (CI) and either continuous delivery or continuous deployment (CD). In a nutshell, CICD is an automated capability and practice aimed at enabling software developers to continuously deliver software from an environment to another with the help of a single command or push of a button.

Tl;dr

Making a pipeline in GitLab is easy as pie, and everyone can do it. A remote machine and a GitLab repository are all needed for the setup. The coming sessions will guide you gently to set up your remote-machine and clarify the basics of YAML file configuration.

   1. Requirements
   2. Setting up a GitLab runner agent on the remote machine
   3. Pipeline configuration
   4. Continuous Integration
   5. Continuous Delivery

1. Requirements

Before we dive into the CI/CD implementation, we should make sure the following are ready with us.

    1. GitLab repository
    2. Remote server

Create a repository on GitLab and set up your project in it. We also need a remote machine with git installed on it. The remote instance can be used to run our pipeline scripts and also deploy our project.

2. Setting up GitLab runner agent

GitLab Runner is a tool that we used to run our jobs and send the results back to GitLab. It is designed to run on Linux, macOS, and Windows.

1. Install GitLab Runner

Here is the link to different installation methods, you can choose one that fits for your remote machine.

The binary installation method for Linux x86-64, is what I'm showing here. Basically, just download the binary file to the /usr/local/bin/ directory and make it executable.

Choose the binary fle according to the system architecture. Type arch on your terminal to know the system architecture.

  • Download the binary
# Linux x86-64
sudo curl -L --output /usr/local/bin/gitlab-runner https://gitlab-runner-downloads.s3.amazonaws.com/latest/binaries/gitlab-runner-linux-amd64
  • Give permission to execute
  sudo chmod +x /usr/local/bin/gitlab-runner
  • Create GitLab CI user
  sudo useradd --comment 'GitLab Runner' --create-home gitlab-runner --shell /bin/bash
  • Install and run as service
  sudo gitlab-runner install --user=gitlab-runner --working-directory=/home/gitlab-runner
  sudo gitlab-runner start

 

2. Register the Runner

There are three types of runners:

  1. Shared (for all projects)
  2. Group (for all projects in a group)
  3. Specific (for specific projects)

 

We're going to set up a specific runner here. So that make sure you have the ownership of the project. Alright, let's go through the following steps to register our runner.

  • Goto to the project's settings > CI/CD and expand the Runner section.
  • Click on the "Disable shared Runners" button If it's enabled.
  • Note the registration token.

Make sure you have got the registration token, then we're ready to register our GitLab Runner.

  • Run the following command.
sudo gitlab-runner register

 

The command will prompt you a few questions for the registration

  1. Enter coordinator URL (https://gitlab.com/)
  2. Enter the token you got.
  3. Enter a description for this runner.
  4. Enter the tags for the runner. (Leave it empty if you're not using multiple runners for the project.)
  5. Select the runner executer (eg: shell )

 

We have one more step to do, is permitting root privileges to the GitLab Runner. It is not necessary If you're not going to use any permission needed (sudo) commands in your ci/cd job

Add the following line to the end of the /etc/sudoers file.

gitlab-runner ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:ALL

All set, now we're ready to move on to the pipeline configuration.

3. Pipeline configuration

We need the .gitlab-ci.yml file in the root of the repository, which defines the structure and order of pipelines and determines what to execute using GitLab Runner.

Let's dive into the fundamentals of the YAML file.

jobs

It is the most fundamental element of the .gitlab-ci.yml file. As its name suggests, here is we write our scripts. Jobs are picked by runners and executed within the environment of the runner.

  job 1:
    script: "execute script for job1"

  job 2:
    script: "execute script for job2"

stages

It helps to define different stages in the pipeline. The definition order will be the final execution order of the jobs.

  stages:
    - build
    - test
    - deploy

stage

It relies on stages and allows to group jobs into different stages. The jobs of the same stage are executed in parallel.

  stages:
    - build
    - test
    - deploy

  job 0:
    stage: .pre
    script: make something useful before build stage

  job 1:
    stage: build
    script: make build dependencies

  job 2:
    stage: build
    script: make build artifacts

  job 3:
    stage: test
    script: make test

  job 4:
    stage: deploy
    script: make deploy

  job 5:
    stage: .post
    script: make something useful at the end of the pipeline

The .pre and .post stages are available to every pipeline. User-defined stages are executed after .pre and before .post.

There are also two edge cases worth mentioning:

  1. If no stages are defined in .gitlab-ci.yml, then the build, test, and deploy are allowed to be as the job's stage by default.

  2. If a job does not specify a stage, the job will automatically be assigned to the test stage.

4. Continuous Integration

You can set up a set of scripts to build and test your application on every code push that could save your application from sudden surprises.

Let's do a simple CI.

stages:
  - test

Test:
  stage: test
  script:
    - echo "write your test here."
    - test -f "index.html"

The above job will check the index.html file exists or not. If it does not exist, the job will fail. Here the CI runs on every code push to the repository, Although we haven't given any control to the job Test.

Alright, Let's move on to the delivery.

5. Continuous Delivery

Continuous delivery is a development practice where code changes automatically prepared for a release to production. It is an extension of continuous integration to make sure that you can release new changes to your customers quickly in a sustainable way.

stages:
  - test
  - deploy

Test:
  stage: test
  script:
    - echo "write your test here."
    - test -f "index.html"

Deploy:
  only:
    refs:
      - master
  stage: deploy
  script:
    - sudo cp -R ./index.html /var/www/html/

Here you see a Deploy job with the only keyword, which lets the job trigger only on the master branch actions.

Whenever you come across any job failing, you'll be able to see the logs on the console. It will help you move forward.

Conclusion

Here we are! We took an extra step in our tech journey. In modern software development, CICD is an essential factor to be considered. So that I'm hoping this guideline makes sense to everyone.

 


 

“ Releasing software is too often an art; it should be an engineering discipline. ” -- David Farley

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Nice explanation of CICD