DEV Community

loading...

Gesture Based Visually Writing System: Web App

qviper profile image Viper Originally published at q-viper.github.io Updated on ・60 min read

Introduction

If i have to write about part, then this is the 4th part or 4th version of Gesture Based Visually Writing System. If you have read my previous blogs on this same topic then you probably know that how much have i prog

Introduction

If i have to write about part, then this is the 5th part or 4th version of Gesture Based Visually Writing System. If you have read my previous blogs on this same topic then you probably know that how much have i progressed from the early version. Once my employer suggested me on interview that you must know how to make your code usable by non coder/public only then your skill can be useful. I am applying same concept. What he meant was i must learn how to deploy my system to non coder. I am not a pro here but i am writing this deployment code while learning so i am expecting feedbacks, suggestions from readers. On 4th version of system, i wrote a code that was more organized by the concept of OOP. Now i want this system to be deployed. It all starts with what if and if you tried to work on what if, you always will learn new things. On this version, i did wrote some Flask Code for deployment of this project on Web App. I will try to make it simple here as much as possible. For the better understanding of this project requires primary prerequisite to understand the concepts and algorithms used on this blog are to view my previous blogs. Because i am explaining little this time. Follow the Before Anything section for more information.

What Now?

  • I will write a code using Flask to deploy previous system on Web App.

A simple work flow will be something like below.
png

I will write a class that will communicate with our existing system and then on every time returns the frames, canvas and detected text to routes.

Before Anything

Before anything, i am requesting you to view my previous blogs and only then return to this blog. Because the blogs below are the earlier version of the codes and concepts. I am still using same concepts and also you will be amazed to see how much i have progressed. I am only going to describe what is happening here on very little. Hence, if you are new to this project then it is best idea to view them. Please view them serially.

How Come?

If you are here, then you either are fed up or curious with my posts on LinkedIn or Twitter about Gesture Based Writing System. But however you are here, i am here because of the support people gave me.
Many people have suggesting me to share these blogs on Medium, reditt to get more feedbacks and support. But i have very limited amount of cellular data to use hence i publish it on my site then share on LinkedIn and Twitter.

Credits

I want to give credits of this blogs to everyone on LinkedIn who reacted, shared and commented my previous blog and on Twitter also (most of retweets was from bots lol). I am very grateful that my this LinkedIn post about previous version got more than 4k reactions and nearly 60k views. I never thought that this will gain so much attention and here i am improving it again. Also my friend Dip keeps asking me about my next work because he always supports me.

Motivation

I am highly motivated by the support people gave me on LinkedIn.

Quote

And why do we fall Bruce?

So that we can learn to pick ourselves up. - Thomas Wyane

Contour Writing: Modifications

For running this system, i had to modify this system little bit. Only modification needed was on class ContourWriting and i am including it below.

Initialization

        ##########################
        ##########################
        self.final_window = cv2.imread("static/taking_avg.png")
        self.detected_text = "Nothing" 
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode
  • final_window: A image that will tell user that average is being taken.
  • detected_text: What has been detected by passing on detector? Final window looks like below: png

Method: __del__

There are default constructor made along with object creation on Python and __del__ is a destructor called upon when all the references of an object is deleted.

    def __del__(self):
        self.cam.release()
        cv2.destroyAllWindows()
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

When an object of our ContourWriting is deleted, we want to close our camera and destroy all opened windows of OpenCV (if any available).

Method: detector

    def detector(self):
        img = self.canvas.canvas.astype(np.uint8)
        op = pytesseract.image_to_string(img, lang="eng", nice="1")
        self.detected_text = op
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Nothing strange happened here, only detected text is assigned to attribute.

Method: main

I had modified this method by some lines only. You can see the codes here too. To make our system run without any possible errors, i tried to wrap codes inside try/except block. Main focus must be given on the try/except block near bottom of the below code.

    def main(self): 
        try:
            while True:
                (ret, frame) = self.cam.read()
                if ret:
                    self.key = cv2.waitKey(1) & 0xFF
                    frame = imutils.resize(frame, width=self.size[1])
                    frame = cv2.flip(frame, 1)
                    clone = frame.copy()
                    gray = cv2.cvtColor(clone, cv2.COLOR_BGR2GRAY)
                    self.set_grays(gray)
                    self.size = frame.shape

                    # if to take average and num frames on average taking is lesser than 
                    if self.num_frames<self.avg_frames and self.take_average==True:
                        self.running_average()
                        cv2.putText(clone, str(self.num_frames), (self.roi_boxes["mroi"][1], self.roi_boxes["mroi"][0]-5),
                                            cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 2, (0, 0, 255), 1)
                        self.num_frames+=1
                    else:
                        self.take_average=False
                        clone = self.find_contours(clone)
                        fmode = self.check_force_mode() 
                        vui = self.vui.update_vui(pointer=self.roi_pointer["vroi"], cpointer=self.roi_pointer["droi"])
                        if self.vui.hover is not None:
                            self.running_mode = self.vui.running_mode   
                        if  self.roi_counts["mroi"] is not None:
                            if self.roi_counts["vroi"] is not None:
                                if self.roi_counts["mroi"]-5 > self.roi_counts["vroi"] and fmode is not None:
                                    self.running_mode = fmode
                                else:
                                    self.running_mode = self.vui.running_mode       
                            else:
                                self.running_mode = fmode
                        self.perform_mode()
                        self.vui.running_mode=self.running_mode
                        canvas = self.canvas.update_window(mode=self.running_mode, 
                                                        pointer=self.roi_pointer["droi"]).astype(np.uint8)
                        self.final_window = self.get_window(canvas=canvas, vui=vui)

                        self.roi_pointer["vroi"] = (-1, -1)

                    clone = self.make_rectangles(clone)
                    self.clone = clone
                    if self.key==27:
                        self.cam.release()
                        cv2.destroyAllWindows()

                    try:
                        ret, clone_jpeg = cv2.imencode('.jpeg', self.clone)
                        ret1, draw_jpeg =  cv2.imencode('.jpeg', self.final_window)
                        if ret:
                            self.clone = clone_jpeg.tobytes()
                            self.vui_frame=draw_jpeg.tobytes()
                            return clone_jpeg.tobytes(), draw_jpeg.tobytes(), self.detected_text
                    except:
                        pass
        except:
            try:
                ret, clone_jpeg = cv2.imencode('.jpeg', self.clone)
                ret1, draw_jpeg =  cv2.imencode('.jpeg', self.final_window)
                if ret:
                    self.clone = clone_jpeg.tobytes()
                    self.vui_frame=draw_jpeg.tobytes()
                    return clone_jpeg.tobytes(), draw_jpeg.tobytes(), self.detected_text
            except:
                pass
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode
  • Take clone image, where we have drawn rectangles, contours, pointer and texts. Encode it to JPEG.
  • Take final window of VUI/Canvas and Encode it to JPEG.
  • Convert both encoded images to bytes.
  • Return the both byte images and detected text.

Initially, our final_window will be set to our image saying taking average. And when averages has been taken then we can send it to our flask routes. I have also set some attributes too. Entire codes inside main.py is given below.

Codes: main.py

Please try to ignore the comments and lengths of the code.

import numpy as np
import os
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import cv2
import imutils
import pytesseract
import time

class VUI:
    """
        A class for visual user interface. Recommended to use default parameters.
    """
    def __init__(self, icons_dir="icons/", window_size=(525, 700, 3), vui_part=20, max_count=15):
        """
            icons_dir: directory to use icons from.
            window_size: size of an vui window. Recommended to use equal of final window.
            vui_part: How much % of rows from top will be used to stack icons?

        """
        self.idir = icons_dir
        self.window = np.zeros(window_size).astype(np.uint8)
        self.size = window_size
        self.vui_part = int(vui_part/100 * self.size[0])
        self.dd_part = (self.vui_part, int(50/100 * self.size[0]))

        self.modes = [fname.split(".")[0] for fname in os.listdir(self.idir)]
        self.icon_size = (int(self.size[1]/len(self.modes)), self.vui_part) # c, r

        self.current_icons = []
        self.anim_scale = 0.5
        self.anim_color = [5, 15, 2]
        self.prev_mode = "move"
        self.current_mode = "move"
        self.running_mode = None 
        self.hover=None

        self.mode_count = 1
        self.max_count = max_count
        self.color_count = 1
        self.max_color = 5

        self.current_pointer = (100, 100)
        self.canvas_pointer = None

        self.draw_color = (0, 0, 255)
        self.previous_color = (0, 0, 255)
        self.current_color = (0, 0, 255)
        self.pointer_color = (100, 200, 200)
        self.point = (10, -3)
        self.colors=None

        self.icons = self.prepare_icons()
        self.get_window()

    def prepare_icons(self):
        """
            A method to prepare icons on initial frame.
            Method sets 4 new attributes.
            cols: List to store (y1, y2) of icon.
            icon_position: Dictionary to store (y1, y2) as key and corresponding image as value
            current_icons: A dictionary initialized with initial icons. Changed on every frame when cursor lies above it.
            mode_pos: Mode as key and its icon's (y1, y2) as value.
        """
        icons = []
        cols = np.linspace(0, self.size[1]-1, len(self.modes)+1).astype(np.int64)
        cols = [(cols[i], cols[i+1]) for i in range(len(cols)-1)]

        icon_pos = {}
        mode_pos = {}
        for i, image_name in enumerate(os.listdir(self.idir)):
            img = cv2.imread(self.idir+image_name)
            img = cv2.resize(img, (cols[i][1]-cols[i][0], self.vui_part))
            icon_pos[cols[i]] = img
            mode_pos[self.modes[i]] = cols[i]
        self.cols = cols   
        self.icon_position = icon_pos
        self.current_icons = icon_pos
        self.mode_pos = mode_pos

    def set_colors(self, col=None, new_colors=None):
        """
            A method to set colors when pointer lies above color icon.
            Initially used subset of {Red, Green, Blue}
            col:- column where current pointer lies.
            new_colors:- If to use other colors.

            Method returns list of available colors on dropdown menu. 
            Changes the draw color, pointer color upon condition meet.
        """
        # earlier pointer was clipped within the vui
        pointer = self.canvas_pointer
        pointer = (pointer[1], self.vui_part+ pointer[0])
        if new_colors is None:
            r = np.array([0, 0, 255])
            g = np.array([0, 255, 0])
            b = np.array([255, 0, 0])
            colors = [r, g, b]
            colors_new = [colors[i]+colors[i+1] for i in range(len(colors)-1)]
            colors.extend(colors_new)
            self.colors = colors
        else:
            self.colors = new_colors
        rows = np.linspace(self.dd_part[0], self.dd_part[1], len(self.colors)+1).astype(np.int64)
        rows = [(rows[i], rows[i+1]) for i in range(len(rows)-1)]
        self.color_pos = {}
        for row, color in zip(rows, colors):
            self.color_pos[row] = color
            if row[0]<=pointer[1]<row[1] and col[0]<=pointer[0]<col[1]:
                self.current_color = (color.tolist())
                if self.current_color == self.previous_color:
                    self.color_count+=1
                else:
                    self.previous_color=self.current_color
                    self.color_count = 1
                if self.color_count>=self.max_color:
                    self.draw_color=self.current_color
                self.pointer_color = (np.abs(np.array([200, 200, 100])-color).tolist())
            self.current_window[row[0]:row[1], col[0]:col[1]] = color

        return self.colors  
    def get_window(self):
        """
            A method to return a VUI window upon called. Sets pointer on VUI canvas.
        """
        self.current_window = np.zeros_like(self.window).astype(np.uint8)
        for col, img in self.current_icons.items():
            self.current_window[:self.vui_part, col[0]:col[1]] = img
        if self.running_mode == "color":
            self.set_colors(col=self.cols[self.modes.index("color")])
        if self.current_pointer is not None and self.current_pointer[0]>0:
            cv2.circle(self.current_window, (self.current_pointer[1], self.current_pointer[0]), self.point[0], self.pointer_color, self.point[1])

        return self.current_window
    def update_vui(self, pointer=(100, 100), cpointer=(10, 100)):
        """
            A method to update the entire VUI properties and state.
            pointer: Current pointer on VUI part.
            cpointer: Current pointer on Canvas.

            cpointer is useful when working with color mode.
        """
        self.current_pointer = pointer
        self.canvas_pointer = cpointer
        #print(pointer, canvas_pointer)
        current_icons = {}
        self.hover=None
        if pointer[0]<=self.vui_part:
            for col, mode in zip(self.cols, self.modes):
                icon = self.icon_position[col].copy()
                ishape = icon.shape

                #print(mode)
                if col[0]<pointer[1]<=col[1]:
                    # pointer is above this icon now animate it.
                    self.current_mode = mode
                    zeros_icon = np.zeros_like(icon).astype(np.uint8)

                    f = self.anim_scale*self.mode_count
                    r = int(ishape[0] * f)
                    c = int(ishape[1] * f)
                    icon = cv2.resize(icon, (c, r))
                    if f > 1:
                        rd = int((r - ishape[0])/2)
                        cd = int((c - ishape[1])/2)

                        zeros_icon[:, :] = icon[rd:ishape[0]+rd, cd:ishape[1]+cd] 
                    else:
                        rd = int((ishape[0] - r)/2)
                        cd = int((ishape[1] - c)/2)
                        rdd, cdd = 0, 0
                        if ishape[0]-rd-rd > r:
                            rdd=1
                        if ishape[1]-cd-cd > c:
                            cdd=1
                        #print(icon.shape, ishape, rd, abs(r-rd), cd, abs(c-cd))
                        zeros_icon[rd:ishape[0]-rd-rdd, cd:ishape[1]-cd-cdd] = icon[::] 

                    current_icons[col] = zeros_icon.astype(np.uint8) + np.uint8(np.array(self.anim_color)*self.mode_count)


                    if self.prev_mode == self.current_mode:
                        self.mode_count += 1
                    else:
                        self.prev_mode = self.current_mode
                        self.mode_count = 1
                    if self.mode_count >= self.max_count:
                        self.running_mode = self.current_mode
                        self.mode_count = 1
                        self.hover = True

                else:
                    current_icons[col] = icon

            self.current_icons = current_icons
        else:
            self.mode_count = 1

        return self.get_window()

# vui = VUI()
# #show(vui.window)
# vui.update_vui()
# vui.update_vui()
# vui.update_vui(pointer=(200, 100))
# vui.update_vui(pointer=(200, 100))

class Canvas:
    def __init__(self, window_size=(525, 700, 3), draw_color=(100, 100, 100), 
                 pointer_color=(0, 0, 0), bg_color=(25, 25, 25), mode="move", 
                 point=(10, -3), vui=None, ssize=(300, 50, 3)):
        """
            A method to initialize canvas.
            window_size: size of a canvas window.
            draw_color: drawing color in RGB.
            pointer_color: pointer color in RGB.
            bg_color: background color in RGB.
            mode: running mode.
            point: tuple of (pointer radius, thickness)
            vui: VUI object.
            ssize: Slider's size.

        """
        self.size=window_size
        self.draw_color=draw_color
        self.pointer_color = pointer_color
        self.bg_color = bg_color
        self.window = np.zeros(self.size, dtype=np.uint8)
        self.canvas= self.window.copy()+bg_color
        self.mode = mode
        self.pointer = None
        self.point = point
        self.current_window = self.window+self.canvas
        self.vui = vui
        self.ssize = ssize
        self.sregion = ()

    def slider(self, size=(300, 30, 3), spoint=50, scolor=(100, 55, 100)):
        """
            A method to change the pointer size by moving a slider.
            size: size of slider region.
            spoint: slider point, generally row position of pointer.
            scolor: slider color
        """
        swidth=10
        #swidth=int(5/50*spoint)
        #swidth = np.clip(swidth, 5, spoint)
        swindow=np.zeros(self.size).astype(np.uint8)
        swindow[:self.ssize[0], 0:self.ssize[1]] += np.uint8([255, 255, 255])  
        r1 = np.clip(spoint-swidth, swidth, self.ssize[0]-swidth)
        r2 = np.clip(spoint+swidth, swidth, self.ssize[0]-swidth)
        spoint = int(10/50 * spoint)
        #print(r1, r2, spoint)


        swindow[r1:r2, :self.ssize[1]] = scolor
        self.point=(spoint, self.point[1])
        #cv2.imshow("slider", swindow.astype(np.uint8))
        return swindow.astype(np.uint8)   
    def clear(self):
        self.window = np.zeros(self.size, dtype=np.uint8)
        self.canvas= self.window.copy()+self.bg_color
    def update_window(self, mode, pointer=(400, 100)):
        """
            mode: running mode
            pointer: where is pointer now?
        """
        self.mode = mode
        self.vui.mode=mode
        self.pointer = pointer
        self.draw_color=self.vui.draw_color
        self.pointer_color = self.vui.pointer_color
        #self.pointer = (np.clip(self.vui.vui_part, pointer[0], self.size[0]), pointer[1])
        #print("c", self.draw_color)
        swindow = np.zeros(self.size).astype(np.uint8)
        #print(pointer)
        if 0<pointer[0]<self.ssize[0] and 0<pointer[1]<self.ssize[1]:
            swindow=self.slider(spoint=pointer[0])
            self.mode = "move"
            #self.pointer = (pointer[0], pointer[1]+self.ssize[1])
            #self.pointer_color = self.bg_color
        if self.mode == "draw":
            cv2.circle(self.canvas, (self.pointer[1], self.pointer[0]), self.point[0], self.draw_color, self.point[1])
            self.current_window = self.window+self.canvas+swindow
            cv2.circle(self.current_window, (self.pointer[1], self.pointer[0]), self.point[0], self.pointer_color, self.point[1])

        elif self.mode == "erase":
            cv2.circle(self.canvas, (self.pointer[1], self.pointer[0]), self.point[0], self.bg_color, self.point[1])
            self.current_window = self.window+self.canvas+swindow
            cv2.circle(self.current_window, (self.pointer[1], self.pointer[0]), self.point[0], self.pointer_color, self.point[1])

        else:
            self.current_window = self.window+self.canvas+swindow
            cv2.circle(self.current_window, (self.pointer[1], self.pointer[0]), self.point[0], self.pointer_color, self.point[1])

        #show(self.canvas)
        #show(self.current_window)
        return self.current_window

class ContourWriting:
    """
        A class to bind all other classes uses.
    """
    def __init__(self, count_mode=10, avg_frames=100, 
                 rois={"droi":[200, 400, 430, 681],
                       "mroi":[80, 10, 150, 225], 
                       "vroi":[100, 400, 200, 681]}, 
                 icons_dir="icons/", aweight=0.5):
        """
            rois: types of ROIS(draw, move, vui)

        """
        self.aweight = aweight
        self.avg_frames=avg_frames
        self.roi_boxes = rois
        self.roi_averages = {key:None for key in rois.keys()}
        self.roi_grays = {key:None for key in rois.keys()}
        self.roi_masks = {key:None for key in rois.keys()}
        self.roi_pointer = {key:None for key in rois.keys()}
        self.roi_counts = {key:None for key in rois.keys()}
        self.size = (525, 700)
        self.set_pointer()
        self.vui = VUI()
        self.canvas_shape = (self.size[0]-self.vui.vui_part, self.size[1], 3) 

        self.canvas = Canvas(window_size=self.canvas_shape, vui=self.vui, bg_color=[255, 255, 255])
        self.running_mode = self.vui.running_mode

        self.force_modes=None
        self.fcount_mode=count_mode
        self.fcurrent_count=0
        self.fprev_mode = "move"
        self.check_force_mode()
        self.cam = cv2.VideoCapture(0)
        self.clone = None
        self.vui_frame = None
        self.num_frames = 0
        self.take_average=True
        self.final_window = cv2.imread("static/taking_avg.png")
        self.detected_text = "Nothing"

    def __del__(self):
        self.cam.release()
        cv2.destroyAllWindows()
        #pass
    def set_pointer(self):
        for rname, pointer in self.roi_pointer.items():
            top, right, bottom, left = self.roi_boxes[rname]
            self.roi_pointer[rname] = (int((left+right)/2), int((top+bottom)/2))
    def running_average(self):
        for rname, roi in self.roi_averages.items():
            gimg = self.roi_grays[rname]
            if roi is None:
                roi = gimg.copy().astype("float")
            else:
                cv2.accumulateWeighted(gimg, roi, self.aweight)
            self.roi_averages[rname] = roi
    def set_grays(self, gray_frame):
        for rname, box in self.roi_boxes.items():
            top, right, bottom, left = box
            gray_roi = gray_frame[top:bottom, right:left]
            #gray_roi = cv2.bilateralFilter(gray_roi, 9, 15, 15)
            gray_roi=cv2.GaussianBlur(gray_roi, (7, 7), 0)
            self.roi_grays[rname] = gray_roi

    def make_rectangles(self, clone):
        cv2.putText(clone, f"Curr. Mode: {self.running_mode}", (self.roi_boxes["vroi"][1], self.roi_boxes["vroi"][0]-20),
                                       cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1, (0, 0, 255), 2)           
        # make rectangle for everything, add text on middle of it
        for rname, box in self.roi_boxes.items():
            top, right, bottom, left = box
            mid = int((top+bottom)/2), int((left+right)/2) 
            if rname == "droi":
                cv2.rectangle(clone, (left, top), (right, bottom), (0, 255, 0), 2)
                cv2.putText(clone, rname, (mid[1], mid[0]),
                                       cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 2, (0, 0, 255), 2)
            if rname == "mroi":

                cv2.rectangle(clone, (left, top), (int((left + right)/3), bottom), (0, 255, 0), 2)
                cv2.rectangle(clone, (int((left + right)/3), top), (2*int((left + right)/3), bottom), (0, 255, 0), 2)
                cv2.rectangle(clone, (2*int((left + right)/3), top), (right, bottom), (0, 255, 0), 2)
                cv2.putText(clone, str("Mv"), (int((right)/1), int((top+bottom)/2)),
                                           cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1, (0, 0, 255), 2)
                cv2.putText(clone, str("Dr"), (int((left + right)/3), int((top+bottom)/2)),
                                           cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1, (0, 0, 255), 2)
                cv2.putText(clone, str("Er"), (2*int((left + right)/3), int((top+bottom)/2)),
                                           cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1, (0, 0, 255), 2)
            if rname == "vroi":
                gb_indices = int((left-right)/len(self.vui.modes))
                gb_indices = np.arange(right, left, gb_indices)
                gb_indices[-1] = gb_indices[-1]+1
                for i in range(len(gb_indices)-1):
                    _gleft = gb_indices[i]
                    _gright = gb_indices[i+1]
                    cv2.rectangle(clone, (_gleft, top), (_gright, bottom), (255, 0, 255), 3)
                    cv2.putText(clone, self.vui.modes[i][:2], (_gleft+2, int((top+bottom)/2)),
                                                       cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 0.75, (255, 0, 255), 2)
        return clone

    def find_contours(self, clone, threshold=10):
        self.roi_counts = {key:None for key in self.roi_counts.keys()}
        for rname, ravg in self.roi_averages.items():
            # abs diff betn img and bg
            top, right, bottom, left = self.roi_boxes[rname]
            diff = cv2.absdiff(ravg.astype("uint8"), self.roi_grays[rname])    
            _, th = cv2.threshold(diff, threshold, 255, cv2.THRESH_BINARY)
            (cnts, _) = cv2.findContours(th.copy(), cv2.RETR_EXTERNAL, cv2.CHAIN_APPROX_SIMPLE)
            m = (-1, -1)
            if len(cnts)!=0:
                max_cnt = max(cnts, key=cv2.contourArea)
                cv2.drawContours(clone, [max_cnt+(right,top)], -1, (0, 0, 255))   
                sshape = max_cnt.shape
                new_segmented = max_cnt.reshape(sshape[0], sshape[-1])
                m = new_segmented.min(axis=0)
                cv2.circle(clone, (right+m[0], top+m[1]), 15, self.vui.pointer_color, -3)
                self.roi_counts[rname] = len(max_cnt)
                # translate m of this roi to window shape
                #if len(max_cnt)>10:    

                if rname!="mroi":
                    pshape = self.size
                    if rname=="vroi":
                        pshape = (self.vui.vui_part, self.vui.size[1])
                    if rname=="droi":
                        # make it self.canvas.shape
                        #pshape = (self.canvas_shape[0], self.canvas_shape[1]-self.canvas.ssize[1]) 
                        pshape=self.canvas_shape
                    h = bottom - top
                    l = left - right


                    m = (int((m[0]/l)*pshape[1]), int((m[1]/h)*pshape[0]))    
                else:
                    m = (right+m[0], top+m[1])
                        #print(m)
                #else:
                        #m=(-1,-1)
                 #       pass
                #if rname=="droi":
                 #   m = (m[0]+self.canvas.ssize[1], m[1])
                self.roi_pointer[rname]=(m[1], m[0])

        return clone    

    def get_window(self, canvas, vui):
        final_window = vui.copy()
        canvas_cpy = canvas.copy()
        vshape = vui.shape
        cshape = canvas.shape
        #print(self.running_mode)
        if self.running_mode == "color":
            # get part where color lies and make those part of canvas_bg black
            cp = self.vui.mode_pos[self.running_mode]
            canvas[:self.vui.dd_part[1]-self.vui.vui_part, cp[0]:cp[1]] = vui[self.vui.vui_part:self.vui.dd_part[1], cp[0]:cp[1]]

            #show(canvas)
        #else:#
        final_window[self.vui.vui_part:, :] = canvas
        cp = self.roi_pointer["droi"]
        cp = (cp[1], cp[0]+self.vui.vui_part)
        point = self.canvas.point
        cv2.circle(final_window,  cp, point[0], self.canvas.pointer_color, point[1])
        return final_window

    def check_force_mode(self):
        top, right, bottom, left = self.roi_boxes["mroi"]
        if self.force_modes is None:
            x=np.linspace(right, left, 4).astype(np.int64)
            x=[(x[i],x[i+1]) for i in range(len(x)-1)]
            force_modes = ["move", "draw", "erase"]
            force_modes = {x[i]:force_modes[i] for i in range(len(x))}
            #print(force_modes)
            self.force_modes = force_modes
        elif self.roi_pointer["mroi"][0]>0:
            mpointer = self.roi_pointer["mroi"]

            for col, mode in self.force_modes.items():

                if col[0]<=mpointer[1]<col[1]:
                    #print(col, mpointer)
                    if self.fprev_mode==mode:
                        self.fcurrent_count+=1
                    else:
                        self.fcurrent_count=0
                        self.fprev_mode=mode
                    if self.fcurrent_count>=self.fcount_mode:
                        #print("f ", mode)
                        #self.fcurrent_count=0

                        return mode
    def detector(self):
        img = self.canvas.canvas.astype(np.uint8)
        op = pytesseract.image_to_string(img, lang="eng", nice="1")
        self.detected_text = op
        #print("Detected: ", op)
    def perform_mode(self):
        if self.running_mode=="clear":
            self.canvas.clear()
            self.running_mode="move"
        if self.running_mode=="restart":
            self.take_average =True
            self.num_frames=0
            self.running_mode="move"
            self.canvas.clear()
        if self.running_mode=="save":
            #cv2.imshow("canvas", self.canvas.canvas.astype(np.uint8))
            cv2.imwrite(f"canvas {time.time()}.png", self.canvas.canvas.astype(np.uint8))
            #cv2.destroyWindow("canvas")
            self.running_mode="move"
        if self.running_mode=="exit":
            self.key=27
        if self.running_mode=="detect":
            self.running_mode="move"
            self.detector()
    def main(self): 
        try:
            while True:
                (ret, frame) = self.cam.read()
                if ret:
                    self.key = cv2.waitKey(1) & 0xFF
                    frame = imutils.resize(frame, width=self.size[1])
                    frame = cv2.flip(frame, 1)
                    clone = frame.copy()
                    gray = cv2.cvtColor(clone, cv2.COLOR_BGR2GRAY)
                    self.set_grays(gray)
                    self.size = frame.shape
                    #print(self.num_frames)

                    # if to take average and num frames on average taking is lesser than 
                    if self.num_frames<self.avg_frames and self.take_average==True:
                        self.running_average()
                        cv2.putText(clone, str(self.num_frames), (self.roi_boxes["mroi"][1], self.roi_boxes["mroi"][0]-5),
                                            cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 2, (0, 0, 255), 1)
                        self.num_frames+=1
                    else:
                        self.take_average=False
                        clone = self.find_contours(clone)
                        fmode = self.check_force_mode() 
                        #vui = self.vui.get_window()
                        vui = self.vui.update_vui(pointer=self.roi_pointer["vroi"], cpointer=self.roi_pointer["droi"])
                        #self.roi_pointer["vroi"] = (-1, -1) # uncomment this and works on both but color pallete is not disabled
                        #self.running_mode = self.vui.running_mode # uncomment this when nothing works       
                        if self.vui.hover is not None:
                            self.running_mode = self.vui.running_mode   
                        if  self.roi_counts["mroi"] is not None:
                            if self.roi_counts["vroi"] is not None:
                                if self.roi_counts["mroi"]-5 > self.roi_counts["vroi"] and fmode is not None:
                                    self.running_mode = fmode
                                else:
                                    self.running_mode = self.vui.running_mode       
                            else:
                                self.running_mode = fmode
                        self.perform_mode()
                        self.vui.running_mode=self.running_mode
                        canvas = self.canvas.update_window(mode=self.running_mode, 
                                                        pointer=self.roi_pointer["droi"]).astype(np.uint8)
                        self.final_window = self.get_window(canvas=canvas, vui=vui)
                        #cv2.imshow("CW", final_window)

                        self.roi_pointer["vroi"] = (-1, -1)
                        #print(vui.shape)
                        #print(canvas.shape)
                        #cv2.imshow("Canvas", canvas)
                        #cv2.imshow("VUI", vui)
                    clone = self.make_rectangles(clone)
                    self.clone = clone
                    #cv2.imshow("Feed", clone)
                    if self.key==27:
                        self.cam.release()
                        cv2.destroyAllWindows()
                        #self.__del__()
                        #break
                    try:
                        #self.detected_text="hurray"
                        ret, clone_jpeg = cv2.imencode('.jpeg', self.clone)
                        ret1, draw_jpeg =  cv2.imencode('.jpeg', self.final_window)
                        #print(ret, ret1)
                        if ret:
                            self.clone = clone_jpeg.tobytes()
                            self.vui_frame=draw_jpeg.tobytes()
                            return clone_jpeg.tobytes(), draw_jpeg.tobytes(), self.detected_text
                    except:
                        pass
        except:
            try:
                ret, clone_jpeg = cv2.imencode('.jpeg', self.clone)
                ret1, draw_jpeg =  cv2.imencode('.jpeg', self.final_window)
                #print(ret, ret1)
                if ret:
                    self.clone = clone_jpeg.tobytes()
                    self.vui_frame=draw_jpeg.tobytes()
                    return clone_jpeg.tobytes(), draw_jpeg.tobytes(), self.detected_text
            except:
                pass




#gw = ContourWriting(avg_frames=150, aweight=0.5)
#gw.main()

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Flask App

I don't know how to begin about Flask because i have done only few projects on Flask. If you have not installed Flask, then please install it using you package installer conda/pip. I will try to explain little bit of Flask codes but if you are new to flask, try to learn some basics about it too. I am learning Flask from e-books.

Project Structure

  • icons
    • icon images
  • static
    • css
      • css files
    • error/average taking images
  • templates
    • index.html
    • detection.html
  • app.py
  • main.py

Import Dependencies

from flask import Flask, render_template, Response
import cv2
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from main import *
import time


err_img=cv2.imread("static\error_frame.png")
_, err_img_byte = cv2.imencode(".jpg", err_img)
err_img_byte = err_img_byte.tobytes()
draw=None
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode
  • Flask is used to create an app object.
  • render_template is to render an html file on distinct route.
  • Response is to send a Response object to http request.
  • From our main.py file, we import everything but importing only class ContourWriting will be enough.

The image error_frame.png looks like below.
png

While showing everyframes taken from camera to the webpage, there were sometimes unexpected errors like can not grab a frame. On those situations, it wil be a great idea to show an error image instead of showing error. Also this image is converted to bytes because we are sending this content as content of Response later.

Class: GestureWeb

As stated earlier on the flow diagram, this class will communicate with our ContourWriting class and takes current frames, VUI frame, and detected text. We initialize the class with only few things.

  • Set detected_text to Nothing initially.
  • Create an object of ContourWriting.
class GestureWeb:
    def __init__(self, port=5005, debug=True):
        self.detected_text = "Nothing"
        self.camera= ContourWriting()

    def frame_gen(self, camera, kind="frame"):        
        while True:    
            frame = camera.main()
            if frame is None:
                frame = (None, None)
            if frame[0] is None:
                frame = err_img_byte
            elif frame[1] is None:
                draw = err_img_byte
            else:
                frame, draw, gw.detected_text = frame

            frame = (b'--frame\r\n'
                b'Content-Type: image/jpeg\r\n\r\n'+bytearray(frame)+b'\r\n')
            draw = (b'--frame\r\n'
                b'Content-Type: image/jpeg\r\n\r\n'+bytearray(draw)+b'\r\n')
            if kind =="frame":
                yield frame
            if kind =="draw":
                yield draw

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Method: frame_gen

This method is actually a generator method. This method calls the main method of the ContourWriting object and returns it to the calling route on every frame. Since we have to show every frames from our live feed to our app, we obviously need a thread to do this task without any execution delay. To return each frame to a calling function, we have to use the yield instead of the return.

  • Call the main method of ContourWriting object.
  • If it is None then we will pass error images to frame and VUI part of our web app.
  • Else, we divide the returned value from main method into 3 parts, frame,draw, detected_text.
  • We then attach detected_text to attribute.
  • We convert the JPEG encoded image into bytearray and attach it with our Content-Type.
  • Then we yield the corresponding value (frame or VUI).

Index File: index.html

I want this file to show running feed and the VUI side by side on same page. Hence i must find a way to stack then horizontally. I got help from stackoverflow's comment sections. I am not going to explain the CSS/HTML here because i am not good at them.

<head>
    <title>
        Tindex
    </title>
    <style>
        .container{
            display: flex;
            flex-direction: row;
            flex-grow: 1;
        }
        .photos{
            display: flex;
            justify-content: center;
            flex-direction: column;
            flex-grow: 1;
        }
        .image{
            display: block;
            width: 100%;
        }
        .word{
            display: block;
            width: 100%;
            text-align: center;
        }
    </style>
    <body>
    <h1>Contour Based Writing System</h1>

    <div class="container">
        <div class="photos">
            <img class="image" src = "{{url_for('video_feed')}}">
            <span class = "word">Frames</span>
        </div>
        <div class="photos">
            <img class="image" src = "{{url_for('get_canvas')}}">
            <span class = "word">Canvas</span>
        </div>
    </div>
    <hr>
    <div>
        <iframe src="detection.html" style="float: inline-end;"></iframe>
    </div>

</body>
</head>

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

To view video feed from camera, we will use image instead of video. It may seem like the video by use but truth is, combination of photos is also a video. So i used image as frame, we won't know that it is image but we feel like a realtime video. And the speed of feed on web app is same as of camera. The video_feed is a route that returns the frame as Response object. I am not going to explain much because i am also learning. We have distinct route for distinct image, for frame or live feed we have video_feed and for canvas we have get_canvas and the Jinja has made it possible. So basically, we will have live feed on left side and our drawing canvas on right side.

To show the detected text, we have detection.html file. We are showing it on the bottom of our page and we are using it on same page by iframe tag.

Detection File: detection.html

On this file we only show the detected_text attribute of the object of class GestureWeb.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
    <head>
        <meta http-equiv="refresh" content="5">
        <title>
            detection
        </title>
    </head>
    <body>
        <p><h3>Detected:</h3>{{detected_text}}</p>
    </body>
</html>
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

I want this page to refresh in every 5 seconds so that it will return the detected text under 5 seconds.

Prepare Flask Decorators/routes

I hope someone comes up with a better way of doing following operations. I found these ways of working by searching on internet for whole day because this is my first Flask project from scratch.

Before First Request

app = Flask(__name__)

@app.before_first_request
def before_first_request_func():
    global gw 
    gw = GestureWeb()
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode
  • Create a flask app using Flask class first.
  • Use decorator before_first_request to do some tasks before the first request made to our app.
    • We made our GestureWeb's object globally accessible.
    • By making our GestureWeb's object on early stage of app creation also makes our camera ready.

Main Route

What do we want to show when user enters the main url?

app.route('/')
def index():
    return render_template('index.html')
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

We want to render the index.html when user enters the main url. And we want to show everything on this page.

Route: video_feed

As i stated earlier on the index.html there were 2 sources defined inside a img tag of each image. One of them is video_feed.

@app.route('/video_feed')
def video_feed():
    fresp = gw.frame_gen(gw.camera, kind="frame")
    return Response(fresp, mimetype='multipart/x-mixed-replace; boundary=frame')
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

On above code, gw.frame_gen(gw.camera, kind="frame"), gw is object of GestureWeb. The method frame_gen is generator. We are passing the object of ContourWriting and the kind of thing we are expecting on return. Finally we return the response type via object of Response.

Route: get_canvas

As i stated earlier on the index.html there were 2 sources defined inside a img tag of each image. One of them is get_canvas.

@app.route('/get_canvas')
def get_canvas():
    fresp = gw.frame_gen(gw.camera, "draw")    
    return Response(fresp, mimetype='multipart/x-mixed-replace; boundary=frame')
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

On above code, gw.frame_gen(gw.camera, kind="draw"), gw is object of GestureWeb. The method frame_gen is generator. We are passing the object of ContourWriting and the kind of thing we are expecting on return.

Route: detection.html

Now to make our iframe work on index.html file, we also need to make a route for our detection file. While rendering this file, we will send the current detected text too. Please look again onto detection.html file for more clearance.

@app.route('/detection.html', methods=['GET', 'POST'])
def detect():
    return render_template("detection.html", detected_text=gw.detected_text)

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Teardown Request

This decorator is helpful when we close our tab or error occurs.

@app.teardown_request
def teardown_request_func(error=None):
    global gw
    gw = GestureWeb()   
    return "ok"
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Run it

The standard way of running flask app is like below.

if __name__=='__main__':    
    app.run(debug=True)
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Codes: app.py

from flask import Flask, render_template, Response
import cv2
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from main import *
import time


err_img=cv2.imread("static\error_frame.png")
_, err_img_byte = cv2.imencode(".jpg", err_img)
err_img_byte = err_img_byte.tobytes()
draw=None



class GestureWeb:
    def __init__(self, port=5005, debug=True):
        self.detected_text = "Nothing"
        self.camera= ContourWriting()

    def frame_gen(self, camera, kind="frame"):        
        while True:    
            frame = camera.main()
            if frame is None:
                frame = (None, None)
            if frame[0] is None:
                frame = err_img_byte
            elif frame[1] is None:
                draw = err_img_byte
            else:
                frame, draw, gw.detected_text = frame
            frame = (b'--frame\r\n'
                b'Content-Type: image/jpeg\r\n\r\n'+bytearray(frame)+b'\r\n')
            draw = (b'--frame\r\n'
                b'Content-Type: image/jpeg\r\n\r\n'+bytearray(draw)+b'\r\n')
            if kind =="frame":
                yield frame
            if kind =="draw":
                yield draw
            if kind=="text":
                yield detected_text




app = Flask(__name__)

@app.before_first_request
def before_first_request_func():
    global gw 
    gw = GestureWeb()


@app.route('/')
def index():
    return render_template('index.html')

@app.route('/get_canvas')
def get_canvas():
    fresp = gw.frame_gen(gw.camera, "draw")    
    return Response(fresp, mimetype='multipart/x-mixed-replace; boundary=frame')


@app.route('/video_feed')
def video_feed():
    fresp = gw.frame_gen(gw.camera, kind="frame")
    return Response(fresp, mimetype='multipart/x-mixed-replace; boundary=frame')

@app.route('/detection.html', methods=['GET', 'POST'])
def detect():
    return render_template("detection.html", detected_text=gw.detected_text)

@app.teardown_request
def teardown_request_func(error=None):
    global gw
    gw = GestureWeb()   
    return "ok"



if __name__=='__main__':    
    app.run(debug=True)


Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Finally

The result of entire code should look like below. From any terminal run the app.py file. I am using VS Code and i have r

Gesture writing on Web App

This was just a simple deployment on web app. There are numerous system where user can write on their canvas by clicking mouse button and predicting what has been written. Also some people were telling me that we can do this by simple addons also. But i am not trying to prove my methods are best one and should be widely used. I applied what i thought and i implemented ideas onto codes. Now i deployed implementation code to web app. There are still number of problems that i have not found and i hope someone will find it soon. I am eagerly waiting to reply every queries here not only on the LinkedIn.

I am going to point out features and shortcomings of this system now.

Codes

Codes to current version of the system is available on link below and if it is not, then hit the comment or leave me message (LinkedIn or Twitter or mail me).

Features

  • Deployed on web app.
  • Live feed and drawing region are placed side by side.
  • Detected text is checked per 5 seconds.

Shortcomings

Shortcomings are most helpful to find new feature on next version. Well here are plenty of them.

  • Sometimes frames are not read properly and OpenCV's warning keeps popping on the console.
  • The system is usable by contour of anything. Hence some gesture confirming model must be used.
  • Also on above video, there can be seen pointer moving rapidly on the VUI regions. It is not always acceptable by users. Hence it must be eliminated soon.

Ideas

  • What if we can create a model that can classify gesture and we can define a certain gesture for certain mode?
  • What if we made a drawing model that can auto complete our drawing.

What Next?

I will try to solve shortcomings on next time. But i am interested to make this system run on mobile phones too. As per now, i am thinking of taking frames from device camera and process it. Then use some API call to get those frame. I might use Unity. I am highly excited to try using LSTMs and other state of the art Deep Learning Algorithms to make this system more awesome but i don't have internet access (other than cellular data) to do broad research.

Why not read more?

ressed from the early version. The first best version of anything will be the imporvements of shortcoming. I am applying same concept. On previous versions, there were lots of problems, one of them is the structured way of the code. Now on this version, i am using the Object Oriented Way, any concept of OOP will be enough to understand the codes following. And minor image processing concept along with beginner OpenCV knowledge will be enough to know everything about on this blog. But for the better understanding of this project requires primary prerequisite to understand the concepts and algorithms used on this blog are to view my previous blogs. Because i am explaining little this time. Follow the Before Anything section for more information.

What now?

  • Now on this blog, i will be sharing new and more optimized and scalable way of writing codes to perform this task. I am introducing the OOP way.
  • I will also add new mode. And that mode is the most essential one. A slider to change size of a pointer.

The entire system can be divided onto 3 parts. And if i have to make a diagram then it will be something like below.
png

VUI

A class representing Visual User Interface, which will lie above the canvas and it contains icons, and interacting panel. Some common methods are written inside the box and the communication medium between the classes is vai object and sometimes attributes. One example of communication is, the class Contour Writing sends the current location of pointer to VUI and VUI shows the pointer on VUI region (if lies). Then the view applies animation on icons, and tries to set mode. Then VUI's current window is sent back along with running mode.

Canvas

A class representing writing place. Contour writing sends thep pointer location and running mode and the operation happens on canvas. Operations generally are Draw. erase and move. Finally, the written canvas is sent back.

Contour Writing

A class that handles all other classes and performs contour extraction task using OpenCV. This class is responsible for many things and one of them is pointer assignment.

Before Anything

Before anything, i am requesting you to view my previous blogs and only then return to this blog. Because the blogs below are the earlier version of the codes and concepts. I am still using same concepts and also you will be amazed to see how much i have progressed. I am only going to describe what is happening here on very little. Hence, if you are new to this project then it is best idea to view them. Please view them serially.

Credits

I want to give credits of this blogs to everyone on LinkedIn who reacted, shared and commented my previous blog and on Twitter also (most of retweets was from bots lol). I am very grateful that my this LinkedIn post about previous version got more than 2.2k reactions and nearly 30k views. I never thought that this will gain so much attention and here i am improving it again.
If i have to take a name and reason for credits:-

Motivation

I am highly motivated by the support people gave me on LinkedIn.

Dependencies

As usual, importing dependencies on earlier of the code run.

import numpy as np
import os
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import cv2
import imutils

def show(img, figsize=(10, 10)):
    figure = plt.figure(figsize=figsize)
    plt.imshow(img)
    plt.show()
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

VUI: Visual User Interface

I don't know if the term VUI for Visual User Interface is already used and if this term is right one now to use. But i am using it anyway on the purpose that we are interacting with video frames. This time instead of a simple variable, i am using a new and robust way of defining VUI. A VUI Class.

Initialize Class

The class is initialized with default parameters and setting useful parameters ahead of program run.

class VUI:
    """
        A class for visual user interface. Recommended to use default parameters.
    """
    def __init__(self, icons_dir="icons/", window_size=(525, 700, 3), vui_part=20):
        """
            icons_dir: directory to use icons from.
            window_size: size of an vui window. Recommended to use equal of final window.
            vui_part: How much % of rows from top will be used to stack icons?

        """
        self.idir = icons_dir
        self.window = np.zeros(window_size).astype(np.uint8)
        self.size = window_size
        self.vui_part = int(vui_part/100 * self.size[0])
        self.dd_part = (self.vui_part, int(50/100 * self.size[0]))

        self.modes = [fname.split(".")[0] for fname in os.listdir(self.idir)]
        self.icon_size = (int(self.size[1]/len(self.modes)), self.vui_part) # c, r

        self.current_icons = []
        self.anim_scale = 0.5
        self.anim_color = [5, 15, 2]
        self.prev_mode = "move"
        self.current_mode = "move"
        self.running_mode = None 
        self.hover=None

        self.mode_count = 1
        self.max_count = 5
        self.color_count = 1
        self.max_color = 5

        self.current_pointer = (100, 100)
        self.canvas_pointer = None

        self.draw_color = (0, 0, 255)
        self.previous_color = (0, 0, 255)
        self.current_color = (0, 0, 255)
        self.pointer_color = (100, 200, 200)
        self.point = (10, -3)
        self.colors=None

        self.icons = self.prepare_icons()
        self.get_window()
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode
  • idir: holds icons directory.
  • window: holds VUI window. Initally blank image.
  • vui_part: how much of rows from top row to use for icons?
  • dd_part: how much of the rows from top row to use for dropdown?
  • modes: available modes. Normally name of the images under idir.
  • icon_size: size of each icon on vui_part. Format (cols, rows).
  • current_icons: list to store icons on every frame.
  • anim_scale: animation scale. How to increase/decrease the icon size?
  • anim_color: animation color for icons
  • prev_mode: previous mode, default is move.
  • current_mode: current mode, default is move.
  • running_mode: running mode, default is None.
  • hover: if cursor is above vui region.
  • mode_count: count number of times pointer contiously lied above current icon. Default 1.
  • max_count: how many times current mode be repeated to change running mode to current mode?
  • color_count: same as mode_count but for color.
  • max_count: same as max_count but for color.
  • current_pointer: where is pointer located currently? value modified by other classes.
  • canvas_pointer: where is pointer right now on canvas?
  • draw_color: current draw color. Red default.
  • previous_color: where did cursor lied on previous dropdown of color?
  • current_color: where is cursor lying on current dropdown of color?
  • pointer_color: which color should the pointer be of.
  • point: value to tune pointer size. (radius, thickness)
  • colors: list of colors in RGB for chosing colors
  • icons: value set by method prepare_icons.

Each and every attribute has its own usecase and i tried to make it lesser. Some variables like count, current/previous are important to change modes/colors so they must be tuned properly.

Method: Prepare Icons

A method to prepare icons and their respective modes. It is called initially while class initialization.

    def prepare_icons(self):
        """
            A method to prepare icons on initial frame.
            Method sets 4 new attributes.
            cols: List to store (y1, y2) of icon.
            icon_position: Dictionary to store (y1, y2) as key and corresponding image as value
            current_icons: A dictionary initialized with initial icons. Changed on every frame when cursor lies above it.
            mode_pos: Mode as key and its icon's (y1, y2) as value.
        """
        cols = np.linspace(0, self.size[1]-1, len(self.modes)+1).astype(np.int64)
        cols = [(cols[i], cols[i+1]) for i in range(len(cols)-1)]

        icon_pos = {}
        mode_pos = {}
        for i, image_name in enumerate(os.listdir(self.idir)):
            img = cv2.imread(self.idir+image_name)
            img = cv2.resize(img, (cols[i][1]-cols[i][0], self.vui_part))
            icon_pos[cols[i]] = img
            mode_pos[self.modes[i]] = cols[i]
        self.cols = cols   
        self.icon_position = icon_pos
        self.current_icons = icon_pos
        self.mode_pos = mode_pos
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

What is happening here?

  • Method starts by creating an array of columns for icons. If we have 9 icons, then to stack them how many lines are required? 10.
  • Then we modify that array into list of tuple. Store (y1, y2) for each column.
  • Initialize dictionaries icon_pos and mode_pos.
  • For each image on icons directory:
    • Read image and resize it to shape that fits completely on cols.
    • Store img on icon_pos, key be cols and value be image.
    • Store cols on mode_pos, key as mode name and value as cols.
  • Make attributes for cols, icon_position, current_icons, mode_pos.

Method: Set Colors

This method is used to change the color of pointer/draw when pointer lies above it for some frames. We can change color from dropdown menu. Colors are either provided from outside of use default.

    def set_colors(self, col=None, new_colors=None):
        """
            A method to set colors when pointer lies above color icon.
            Initially used subset of {Red, Green, Blue}
            col:- column where current pointer lies.
            new_colors:- If to use other colors.

            Method returns list of available colors on dropdown menu. 
            Changes the draw color, pointer color upon condition meet.
        """
        # earlier pointer was clipped within the vui
        pointer = self.canvas_pointer
        pointer = (pointer[1], self.vui_part+ pointer[0])
        if new_colors is None:
            r = np.array([0, 0, 255])
            g = np.array([0, 255, 0])
            b = np.array([255, 0, 0])
            colors = [r, g, b]
            colors_new = [colors[i]+colors[i+1] for i in range(len(colors)-1)]
            colors.extend(colors_new)
            self.colors = colors
        else:
            self.colors = new_colors
        rows = np.linspace(self.dd_part[0], self.dd_part[1], len(self.colors)+1).astype(np.int64)
        rows = [(rows[i], rows[i+1]) for i in range(len(rows)-1)]
        self.color_pos = {}
        for row, color in zip(rows, colors):
            self.color_pos[row] = color
            if row[0]<=pointer[1]<row[1] and col[0]<=pointer[0]<col[1]:
                self.current_color = (color.tolist())
                if self.current_color == self.previous_color:
                    self.color_count+=1
                else:
                    self.previous_color=self.current_color
                    self.color_count = 1
                if self.color_count>=self.max_color:
                    self.draw_color=self.current_color
                self.pointer_color = (np.abs(np.array([200, 200, 100])-color).tolist())
            self.current_window[row[0]:row[1], col[0]:col[1]] = color

        return self.colors
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode
  • Method takes the pointer as canvas's pointer because we only use the pointer of VUI on vui_part only.
  • We edited the pointer to make it fit on our case. The swapping is require because we have pointer on (y, x) format mostly.
  • We initialize colors from condition checks.
  • Since colors are chosed form dropdown, colors are stackked top to down. Hence find rows that divides colors.
  • If current pointer's x coordinate lies within any of color's row then the color_count is increased.
  • When color_count reaches max_count we change the pointer color and draw color.
  • We also have to change the window's color on those region where current color's position is.

Method: Get window

This method is called from other methods.

    def get_window(self):
        """
            A method to return a VUI window upon called. Sets pointer on VUI canvas.
        """
        self.current_window = np.zeros_like(self.window).astype(np.uint8)
        for col, img in self.current_icons.items():
            self.current_window[:self.vui_part, col[0]:col[1]] = img
        if self.running_mode == "color":
            self.set_colors(col=self.cols[self.modes.index("color")])
        if self.current_pointer is not None and self.current_pointer[0]>0:
            cv2.circle(self.current_window, (self.current_pointer[1], self.current_pointer[0]), self.point[0], self.pointer_color, self.point[1])

        return self.current_window
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode
  • Starts by initializing new blank image.
  • Loop through current_icons's key and values, set the icon image on exact position of vui_part.
  • When running_mode is color we have to show dropdown hence call set_colors method and pass the column where current pointer is.
  • Finally draw a pointer on window and return.

Method: Update VUI

This method is called from the main class of writing. Method performs too many things here. This method calls other methods also to perform operations like changing color, changing mode etc.

    def update_vui(self, pointer=(100, 100), cpointer=(10, 100)):
        """
            A method to update the entire VUI properties and state.
            pointer: Current pointer on VUI part.
            cpointer: Current pointer on Canvas.

            cpointer is useful when working with color mode.
        """
        self.current_pointer = pointer
        self.canvas_pointer = cpointer
        #print(pointer, canvas_pointer)
        current_icons = {}
        self.hover=None
        if pointer[0]<=self.vui_part:
            for col, mode in zip(self.cols, self.modes):
                icon = self.icon_position[col].copy()
                ishape = icon.shape

                #print(mode)
                if col[0]<pointer[1]<=col[1]:
                    # pointer is above this icon now animate it.
                    self.current_mode = mode
                    zeros_icon = np.zeros_like(icon).astype(np.uint8)

                    f = self.anim_scale*self.mode_count
                    r = int(ishape[0] * f)
                    c = int(ishape[1] * f)
                    icon = cv2.resize(icon, (c, r))
                    if f > 1:
                        rd = int((r - ishape[0])/2)
                        cd = int((c - ishape[1])/2)

                        zeros_icon[:, :] = icon[rd:ishape[0]+rd, cd:ishape[1]+cd] 
                    else:
                        rd = int((ishape[0] - r)/2)
                        cd = int((ishape[1] - c)/2)
                        rdd, cdd = 0, 0
                        if ishape[0]-rd-rd > r:
                            rdd=1
                        if ishape[1]-cd-cd > c:
                            cdd=1
                        #print(icon.shape, ishape, rd, abs(r-rd), cd, abs(c-cd))
                        zeros_icon[rd:ishape[0]-rd-rdd, cd:ishape[1]-cd-cdd] = icon[::] 

                    current_icons[col] = zeros_icon.astype(np.uint8) + np.uint8(np.array(self.anim_color)*self.mode_count)


                    if self.prev_mode == self.current_mode:
                        self.mode_count += 1
                    else:
                        self.prev_mode = self.current_mode
                        self.mode_count = 1
                    if self.mode_count >= self.max_count:
                        self.running_mode = self.current_mode
                        self.mode_count = 1
                        self.hover = True

                else:
                    current_icons[col] = icon

            self.current_icons = current_icons
        else:
            self.mode_count = 1

        return self.get_window()
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode
  • Take vui_pointer and set it to current_pointer.
  • Take canvas_pointer and set it too.
  • Initialize dictionary to store current_icons. We store the changed icon here along with unchanged.
  • Initialize hover to None.
  • Proceed below only when current x axis lies below the vui_part. i.e if pointer is on icons panel.
  • Loop through columns of icons and modes at same time.
    • Take icon lying on this column.
    • If current pointer's column lies within the columns:
      • Set current mode.
      • Create blank image of icon shape as zeros_icon.
      • Find the scale factor by multiple of mode counts.
      • Find new row/column for this icon. We are scaling icon to make it look like animating.
      • Make new icon's center and original icon's center same and insert it into blank image.
      • Store zeros_icon on current_icons.
      • Perform count checkings. And change mode when mode count reaches max. Set hover to True.
    • Else:
      • Store icon on current_icon. Because pointer is not above this icon so leave it as it is.
  • Return the output of get_window method.

Test Class: VUI

To test the class, we will call the method update_vui by passing it a pointer. To make sure our dropdown is working fine i will set pointer to color's region. And to show animating like effect, i will call it multiple times. See the result below.

vui = VUI()
show(vui.window)

fig = plt.figure(figsize=(30, 30))
ax = fig.subplots(2, 3, sharex='col', sharey='row')

for i in range(2):
    for j in range(3):
        ax[i][j].imshow(vui.update_vui())

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

png

png

From above image, it is clear that our dropdown is working fine and the icon is also changing its color and size at the same time. Hence test passed.

Canvas

The canvas we will use will also be a class. It is not much complicated than VUI class because its task is to only write/erase on that position where pointer lies. Erase is much easier if we specified the background color eariler and whenever the pointer lies, draw a circle there with background color.

Initialize: Canvas

Initialize a class with default and essential parameters. Follow the docstring for more information.

class Canvas:
    def __init__(self, window_size=(525, 700, 3), draw_color=(100, 100, 100), 
                 pointer_color=(0, 0, 0), bg_color=(25, 25, 25), mode="move", 
                 point=(10, -3), vui=None, ssize=(300, 50, 3)):
        """
            A method to initialize canvas.
            window_size: size of a canvas window.
            draw_color: drawing color in RGB.
            pointer_color: pointer color in RGB.
            bg_color: background color in RGB.
            mode: running mode.
            point: tuple of (pointer radius, thickness)
            vui: VUI object.
            ssize: Slider's size.

        """
        self.size=window_size
        self.draw_color=draw_color
        self.pointer_color = pointer_color
        self.bg_color = bg_color
        self.window = np.zeros(self.size, dtype=np.uint8)
        self.canvas= self.window.copy()+bg_color
        self.mode = mode
        self.pointer = None
        self.point = point
        self.current_window = self.window+self.canvas
        self.vui = vui
        self.ssize = ssize
        self.sregion = ()
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode
  • Canvas is initialized with background color.
  • Current window must include the pointer and the real canvas.

Method: Update Window

A method which performs draw/erase/move on canvas and shows pointer.

    def update_window(self, mode, pointer=(400, 100)):
        """
            mode: running mode
            pointer: where is pointer now?
        """
        self.mode = mode
        self.vui.mode=mode
        self.pointer = pointer
        self.draw_color=self.vui.draw_color
        self.pointer_color = self.vui.pointer_color
        #self.pointer = (np.clip(self.vui.vui_part, pointer[0], self.size[0]), pointer[1])
        #print("c", self.draw_color)
        swindow = np.zeros(self.size).astype(np.uint8)
        #print(pointer)
        if 0<pointer[0]<self.ssize[0] and 0<pointer[1]<self.ssize[1]:
            swindow=self.slider(spoint=pointer[0])
            self.mode = "move"

        if self.mode == "draw":
            cv2.circle(self.canvas, (self.pointer[1], self.pointer[0]), self.point[0], self.draw_color, self.point[1])
            self.current_window = self.window+self.canvas+swindow
            cv2.circle(self.current_window, (self.pointer[1], self.pointer[0]), self.point[0], self.pointer_color, self.point[1])

        elif self.mode == "erase":
            cv2.circle(self.canvas, (self.pointer[1], self.pointer[0]), self.point[0], self.bg_color, self.point[1])
            self.current_window = self.window+self.canvas+swindow
            cv2.circle(self.current_window, (self.pointer[1], self.pointer[0]), self.point[0], self.pointer_color, self.point[1])

        else:
            self.current_window = self.window+self.canvas+swindow
            cv2.circle(self.current_window, (self.pointer[1], self.pointer[0]), self.point[0], self.pointer_color, self.point[1])

        #show(self.canvas)
        #show(self.current_window)
        return self.current_window
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode
  • Some attributes are set initially from VUI object and parameters.
  • Initialize slider to blank image.
  • When pointer lies on slider region, then call slider window and change mode to move.
  • If mode is draw,
    • Draw circle on pointer position with current properties of draw on canvas.
    • Create current window.
    • Draw circle on current window with pointer color.
  • If mode is erase,
    • Draw circle on pointer position with current properties of draw on canvas. i.g background color
    • Create current window.
    • Draw circle on current window with pointer color.
  • Else:
    • Create current window and draw a circle on pointer position with pointer color.
  • Return current window.

Method: Slider

This is new concept on this version. I am using slider to change the size of pointer. Isn't it interesting?

     def slider(self, size=(300, 30, 3), spoint=50, scolor=(100, 55, 100)):
        """
            A method to change the pointer size by moving a slider.
            size: size of slider region.
            spoint: slider point, generally row position of pointer.
            scolor: slider color
        """
        swidth=10
        #swidth=int(5/50*spoint)
        #swidth = np.clip(swidth, 5, spoint)
        swindow=np.zeros(self.size).astype(np.uint8)
        swindow[:self.ssize[0], 0:self.ssize[1]] += np.uint8([255, 255, 255])  
        r1 = np.clip(spoint-swidth, swidth, self.ssize[0]-swidth)
        r2 = np.clip(spoint+swidth, swidth, self.ssize[0]-swidth)
        spoint = int(10/50 * spoint)
        #print(r1, r2, spoint)


        swindow[r1:r2, :self.ssize[1]] = scolor
        self.point=(spoint, self.point[1])
        #cv2.imshow("slider", swindow.astype(np.uint8))
        return swindow.astype(np.uint8)   
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode
  • Method starts by defining new variable swidth, which is slider width.
  • New blank image is made to store slider.
  • Slider is made by making a rectangle on the spoint row, we add width on both top/bottom of slider.
  • Change our pointer size relative to the the slider position.
  • Return the slider window.

Method: Clear

A method to clear the window and canvas when clear mode is enabled.

    def clear(self):
        self.window = np.zeros(self.size, dtype=np.uint8)
        self.canvas= self.window.copy()+self.bg_color
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Both canvas and window is returned to their original state.

Test: Canvas

Lets test our canvas. The output should look like below. I am testing it to work with slider and draw both.

c = Canvas(vui=VUI())

print("Draw with normal pointer move.")
# draw the color first.
fig = plt.figure(figsize=(30, 30))
ax = fig.subplots(2, 3, sharex='col', sharey='row')
p = 0
for i in range(2):
    for j in range(3):
        ax[i][j].imshow(c.update_window(mode="draw", pointer=(400, 100+p)))
        p+=20
plt.show()

print("Draw with slider move.")
# test the slider
fig = plt.figure(figsize=(30, 30))
ax = fig.subplots(2, 3, sharex='col', sharey='row')
p=0
for i in range(2):
    for j in range(3):
        ax[i][j].imshow(c.update_window(mode="draw", pointer=(50+p, 10)))
        p+=20
plt.show()

print("Draw with new pointer.")
# Draw again the slider has increased
fig = plt.figure(figsize=(30, 30))
ax = fig.subplots(2, 3, sharex='col', sharey='row')
p = 0
for i in range(2):
    for j in range(3):
        ax[i][j].imshow(c.update_window(mode="draw", pointer=(400, 100+p)))
        p+=20
plt.show()

print("Erase with new pointer.")
# erase it now
fig = plt.figure(figsize=(30, 30))
ax = fig.subplots(2, 3, sharex='col', sharey='row')
p = 0
for i in range(2):
    for j in range(3):
        ax[i][j].imshow(c.update_window(mode="erase", pointer=(400, 100+p)))
        p+=20
plt.show()
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode
Draw with normal pointer move.
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

png

Clipping input data to the valid range for imshow with RGB data ([0..1] for floats or [0..255] for integers).
Clipping input data to the valid range for imshow with RGB data ([0..1] for floats or [0..255] for integers).


Draw with slider move.


Clipping input data to the valid range for imshow with RGB data ([0..1] for floats or [0..255] for integers).
Clipping input data to the valid range for imshow with RGB data ([0..1] for floats or [0..255] for integers).
Clipping input data to the valid range for imshow with RGB data ([0..1] for floats or [0..255] for integers).
Clipping input data to the valid range for imshow with RGB data ([0..1] for floats or [0..255] for integers).
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

png

Draw with new pointer.
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

png

Erase with new pointer.
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

png

The test above is done on draw mode and erase with different pointer size. What have i done?

  • Made a figure and subplots for 6 images.
  • Draw a color on canvas at pointer position at different position.
  • Make pointer position at slider region and made it move.
  • Draw with new pointer size.
  • Erase with new pointer size.

Test passed.

Contour Writing

A class to perform overall operation using contours. I have worked hard to maintain the codes here by updating previous codes.

Initialize: Contour Writing

Instead of using a distinct variable for each ROIs, i thought of using dictionaries to store particular property only. The keys of a dictionary will be ROI name and value will be the type of data to store.

class ContourWriting:
    """
        A class to bind all other classes uses.
    """
    def __init__(self, count_mode=5, avg_frames=100, 
                 rois={"droi":[250, 400, 480, 681],
                       "mroi":[100, 10, 300, 225], 
                       "vroi":[150, 400, 240, 681]}, 
                 icons_dir="icons/", aweight=0.5):
        """
            count_mode: max count
            avg_frames: number of frames to take average
            rois: types of ROIS. Keys draw, move, vui and values [top, right, bottom, left]
            icons_dir: icons's directory
            aweight: value of delta on running average.


        """
        self.aweight = aweight
        self.avg_frames=avg_frames
        self.roi_boxes = rois
        self.roi_averages = {key:None for key in rois.keys()}
        self.roi_grays = {key:None for key in rois.keys()}
        self.roi_masks = {key:None for key in rois.keys()}
        self.roi_pointer = {key:None for key in rois.keys()}
        self.roi_counts = {key:None for key in rois.keys()}
        self.size = (525, 700)
        self.set_pointer()
        self.vui = VUI()
        self.canvas_shape = (self.size[0]-self.vui.vui_part, self.size[1], 3) 

        self.canvas = Canvas(window_size=self.canvas_shape, vui=self.vui)
        self.running_mode = self.vui.running_mode

        self.force_modes=None
        self.fcount_mode=count_mode
        self.fcurrent_count=0
        self.fprev_mode = "move"
        self.check_force_mode()

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode
  • roi_averages: to store average image of each roi.
  • roi_grays: to store grayscale image of each roi.
  • roi_masks: to store mask image of each roi.
  • roi_pointer: to store pointer position on each roi.
  • roi_counts: to store the counts of contour points on each roi.
  • set_pointer: method to set pointer on respective position.
  • vui: attribute to store object of VUI class.
  • canvas_shape: must be below vui_part.
  • force_modes: name of force modes from force or mroi.
  • check_force_mode: method to perform check on mroi.

Method: Main

A method to call from outside and handles all the tasks.

    def main(self):
        cam = cv2.VideoCapture(0) 
        self.num_frames = 0
        self.take_average=True
        while True:
            (ret, frame) = cam.read()
            if ret:
                self.key = cv2.waitKey(1) & 0xFF
                frame = imutils.resize(frame, width=self.size[1])
                frame = cv2.flip(frame, 1)
                clone = frame.copy()
                gray = cv2.cvtColor(clone, cv2.COLOR_BGR2GRAY)
                self.set_grays(gray)
                self.size = frame.shape
                #print(self.roi_grays)

                # if to take average and num frames on average taking is lesser than 
                if self.num_frames<self.avg_frames and self.take_average==True:
                    self.running_average()
                    cv2.putText(clone, str(self.num_frames), (100, 100),
                                           cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 2, (0, 0, 255), 1)
                    self.num_frames+=1
                else:
                    self.take_average=False
                    clone = self.find_contours(clone)
                    fmode = self.check_force_mode() 
                    vui = self.vui.update_vui(pointer=self.roi_pointer["vroi"], cpointer=self.roi_pointer["droi"])
                    if self.vui.hover is not None:
                        self.running_mode = self.vui.running_mode   
                    if  self.roi_counts["mroi"] is not None:
                        if self.roi_counts["vroi"] is not None:
                            if self.roi_counts["mroi"]-5 > self.roi_counts["vroi"] and fmode is not None:
                                self.running_mode = fmode
                            else:
                                self.running_mode = self.vui.running_mode       
                        else:
                            self.running_mode = fmode
                    self.perform_mode()
                    self.vui.running_mode=self.running_mode
                    canvas = self.canvas.update_window(mode=self.running_mode, 
                                                       pointer=self.roi_pointer["droi"]).astype(np.uint8)
                    final_window = self.get_window(canvas=canvas, vui=vui)
                    cv2.imshow("CW", final_window)

                    self.roi_pointer["vroi"] = (-1, -1)

                clone = self.make_rectangles(clone)
                cv2.imshow("Feed", clone)
                if self.key==27:
                    break
        cam.release()
        cv2.destroyAllWindows()

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode
  • Starts by initializing camera.
  • Initialize num_frames to 0, and take_average to True.
  • While true perform below:
    • Read each frame and read success parameter.
    • If frame has been read, perform below:
      • Initialize key check.
      • Resize the frame and flip it to make it mirror effect.
      • Convert frame to graysclae and pass it to set_grays() method to find grayscale on each ROIs.
      • If num_frames is smaller than avg_frames and take_average is True,
        • Call running_average().
        • Put frame number on frame.
        • Increase num_frames.
      • Else:
        • Set take_average to False.
        • Call find_contours() to get current contours.
        • Call check_force_mode() method to check on mroi.
        • Call update_vui() of VUI by passing it current pointer of VUI ROI and draw ROI.
        • If hover is not None:
          • Then set running mode to running mode of VUI.
        • If counts of contour points on mroi is greater than vroi's then try to set running mode to force mode.
        • Else set running_mode to running mode of VUI.
        • Finally perfomr the mode action.
        • Set running mode of VUI to running mode.
        • Call update_window() of Canvas by passing it running mode and pointer of draw ROI.
        • Finally call get_window() method by passing current canvas and vui.
        • Show the current writing window.
        • Set ROI of VUI to (-1, -1) to prevent false pointer.
        • Call make_rectangles() to make rectangle for each ROIs.
      • Show clone image.
      • Exit loop on exit mode.
    • Release camera and destroy all windows.

Method: Set Grays

    def set_grays(self, gray_frame):
        """
            Takes current grayscale frame and sets roi_grays dictionary.
        """
        for rname, box in self.roi_boxes.items():
            top, right, bottom, left = box
            gray_roi = gray_frame[top:bottom, right:left]
            gray_roi=cv2.GaussianBlur(gray_roi, (7, 7), 0)
            self.roi_grays[rname] = gray_roi
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode
  • Loop through each bounding box of each ROI.
    • Take top, right, bottom, left coordinates of box and crop that region from grayscale frame.
    • Add some blur to that cropped region and add set it to roi_grays to corresponding rname key.

Method: Running Average

A method to perform running average on every ROIs.

    def running_average(self):
        for rname, roi in self.roi_averages.items():
            gimg = self.roi_grays[rname]
            if roi is None:
                roi = gimg.copy().astype("float")
            else:
                cv2.accumulateWeighted(gimg, roi, self.aweight)
            self.roi_averages[rname] = roi
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode
  • Take averages of each ROI and perform Running average.
  • Set average value to roi_averages's corresponding rname key.

Method: Find Contours

    def find_contours(self, clone, threshold=10):
        """
            A method to find contours on each ROIs, draw maximum contours and 
            then set pointer relative to VUI and Canvas.
            clone: current clone of frame.
            threshold: thresholding value.
        """
        self.roi_counts = {key:None for key in self.roi_counts.keys()}
        for rname, ravg in self.roi_averages.items():
            # abs diff betn img and bg
            top, right, bottom, left = self.roi_boxes[rname]
            diff = cv2.absdiff(ravg.astype("uint8"), self.roi_grays[rname])    
            _, th = cv2.threshold(diff, threshold, 255, cv2.THRESH_BINARY)
            (cnts, _) = cv2.findContours(th.copy(), cv2.RETR_EXTERNAL, cv2.CHAIN_APPROX_SIMPLE)
            m = (-1, -1)
            if len(cnts)!=0:
                max_cnt = max(cnts, key=cv2.contourArea)
                cv2.drawContours(clone, [max_cnt+(right,top)], -1, (0, 0, 255))   
                sshape = max_cnt.shape
                new_segmented = max_cnt.reshape(sshape[0], sshape[-1])
                m = new_segmented.min(axis=0)
                cv2.circle(clone, (right+m[0], top+m[1]), 15, self.vui.pointer_color, -3)
                self.roi_counts[rname] = len(max_cnt)
                # translate m of this roi to window shape
                #if len(max_cnt)>10:    

                if rname!="mroi":
                    pshape = self.size
                    if rname=="vroi":
                        pshape = (self.vui.vui_part, self.vui.size[1])
                    if rname=="droi":
                        pshape = self.canvas_shape
                    h = bottom - top
                    l = left - right


                    m = (int((m[0]/l)*pshape[1]), int((m[1]/h)*pshape[0]))    
                else:
                    m = (right+m[0], top+m[1])

                self.roi_pointer[rname]=(m[1], m[0])

        return clone  
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

A method to find contours on each ROIs, draw maximum contours and then set pointer relative to VUI and Canvas.

  • Initialize roi_counts with keys as each ROIs and values as None.
  • Loop through average of each ROIs.
    • Take current gray of this ROI and find absolute difference.
    • Threshold the difference image to binary and find contours.
    • Set m to (-1, -1) initially.
    • If length of contours is greater then:
      • Find max contour and draw it on frame clone.
      • Find minimum point of contour and draw a pointer on that point.
      • Insert contour counts to each ROIs.
      • Perform pointer translation relative to mroi, vroi and droi.
    • Finally, set roi_pointer to each ROI.
  • Return clone.

Method: Check Force Mode

Note that we have 2 ROIs that can change the running mode but when to use which? Force mode is used from the mroi section and other modes are used from vroi section.

    def check_force_mode(self):
        top, right, bottom, left = self.roi_boxes["mroi"]
        if self.force_modes is None:
            x=np.linspace(right, left, 4).astype(np.int64)
            x=[(x[i],x[i+1]) for i in range(len(x)-1)]
            force_modes = ["move", "draw", "erase"]
            force_modes = {x[i]:force_modes[i] for i in range(len(x))}
            #print(force_modes)
            self.force_modes = force_modes
        elif self.roi_pointer["mroi"][0]>0:
            mpointer = self.roi_pointer["mroi"]

            for col, mode in self.force_modes.items():

                if col[0]<=mpointer[1]<col[1]:
                    #print(col, mpointer)
                    if self.fprev_mode==mode:
                        self.fcurrent_count+=1
                    else:
                        self.fcurrent_count=0
                        self.fprev_mode=mode
                    if self.fcurrent_count>=self.fcount_mode:
                        #print("f ", mode)
                        #self.fcurrent_count=0

                        return mode
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode
  • Take a top, right, bottom, left from mroi key's value on roi_boxes.
  • Then foce_modes is checked if is None or not.
    • Divide the ROI Box into parts equal to force_modes. By default use move, draw, erase.
    • Create a dictionary with column as key and value as mode name.
    • Set force_modes attribute.
  • Else length of contours on mroi is greater than 0, then take pointer.
    • Loop through each columns, mode on force_modes:
      • If the y coordinate of pointer is within the range of column for this mode then set do check previous and current mode.

Method: Perform Mode

I have used 9 modes total. Until now, draw, erase, move, color have been used but now for remaining modes, we have to perform some action. Lets define a method for that too.

    def perform_mode(self):
        if self.running_mode=="clear":
            self.canvas.clear()
            self.running_mode="move"
        if self.running_mode=="restart":
            self.take_average =True
            self.num_frames=0
            self.running_mode="move"
            self.canvas.clear()
        if self.running_mode=="save":
            #cv2.imshow("canvas", self.canvas.canvas.astype(np.uint8))
            cv2.imwrite("canvas.png", self.canvas.canvas.astype(np.uint8))
            #cv2.destroyWindow("canvas")
            self.running_mode="move"
        if self.running_mode=="exit":
            self.key=27
        if self.running_mode=="detect":
            self.running_mode="move"
            self.detector()

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode
  • If running mode is clear, then call the clear() method of canvas's object.
  • If running mode is restart,
    • Set take average=True
    • Set num_frames = 0
    • Set running_mode="move".
    • Call the clear() method of canvas's object.
  • If running mode is save:
    • Save current canvas draw on disk and change running mode to move.
  • If running mode is exit, then change current key to 27.
  • If running mode is detect, then change running mode to move and call detector method.

Method: Detector

A method that takes current canvas and performs detection using detection model like OCR. For now, i am using Tesseract.

    def detector(self):
        img = self.canvas.canvas.astype(np.uint8)
        op = pytesseract.image_to_string(img, lang="eng", nice="1")
        print("Detected: ", op)
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode
  • To install pytesseract is easy. But you have to install another installation file on windows to make it run.
  • If you have any problems regarding installation of pytesseract then leave me mail or comment.

Method: Get Window

A method that binds window of VUI and Canvas to make them look like one and return new window.

    def get_window(self, canvas, vui):
        final_window = vui.copy()
        canvas_cpy = canvas.copy()
        vshape = vui.shape
        cshape = canvas.shape
        #print(self.running_mode)
        if self.running_mode == "color":
            # get part where color lies and make those part of canvas_bg black
            cp = self.vui.mode_pos[self.running_mode]
            canvas[:self.vui.dd_part[1]-self.vui.vui_part, cp[0]:cp[1]] = vui[self.vui.vui_part:self.vui.dd_part[1], cp[0]:cp[1]]


        final_window[self.vui.vui_part:, :] = canvas
        cp = self.roi_pointer["droi"]
        cp = (cp[1], cp[0]+self.vui.vui_part)
        point = self.canvas.point
        cv2.circle(final_window,  cp, point[0], self.canvas.pointer_color, point[1])
        return final_window

Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode
  • A simple indexing will be enough to perform this operation.
  • Take the canvas window(not the canvas itself) and vui window.
  • If running mode is color, then there is dropdown to be shown.
    • Prepare the indices there lies only the dropdown of color.
  • Assign the canvas to parts below the vui_part of VUI because, those parts includes icons.
  • Finally draw the pointer on new window. It is not necessary though.
  • Return the final window.

Method: Make Rectangles

A method to make rectangles on the clone of frame so that we can notice where our finger is moving in front of the camera. Also this method will add text to each rectangles.

    def make_rectangles(self, clone):
        # make rectangle for everything, add text on middle of it
        for rname, box in self.roi_boxes.items():
            cv2.putText(clone, f"Curr. Mode: {self.running_mode}", (400, 100),
                                       cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1, (0, 0, 255), 2)
            top, right, bottom, left = box
            mid = int((top+bottom)/2), int((left+right)/2) 
            if rname == "droi":
                cv2.rectangle(clone, (left, top), (right, bottom), (0, 255, 0), 2)
                cv2.putText(clone, rname, (mid[1], mid[0]),
                                       cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 2, (0, 0, 255), 2)
            if rname == "mroi":

                cv2.rectangle(clone, (left, top), (int((left + right)/3), bottom), (0, 255, 0), 2)
                cv2.rectangle(clone, (int((left + right)/3), top), (2*int((left + right)/3), bottom), (0, 255, 0), 2)
                cv2.rectangle(clone, (2*int((left + right)/3), top), (right, bottom), (0, 255, 0), 2)
                cv2.putText(clone, str("Mv"), (int((right)/1), int((top+bottom)/2)),
                                           cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1, (0, 0, 255), 2)
                cv2.putText(clone, str("Dr"), (int((left + right)/3), int((top+bottom)/2)),
                                           cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1, (0, 0, 255), 2)
                cv2.putText(clone, str("Er"), (2*int((left + right)/3), int((top+bottom)/2)),
                                           cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1, (0, 0, 255), 2)
            if rname == "vroi":
                gb_indices = int((left-right)/len(self.vui.modes))
                gb_indices = np.arange(right, left, gb_indices)
                gb_indices[-1] = gb_indices[-1]+1
                for i in range(len(gb_indices)-1):
                    _gleft = gb_indices[i]
                    _gright = gb_indices[i+1]
                    cv2.rectangle(clone, (_gleft, top), (_gright, bottom), (255, 0, 255), 3)
                    cv2.putText(clone, self.vui.modes[i][:2], (_gleft+2, int((top+bottom)/2)),
                                                       cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 0.75, (255, 0, 255), 2)
        return clone
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Simple operation is happening here.

  • For each ROIs:
    • Take top, right, bottom, left then find midpoint of this box.
    • Draw the rectangle ofor each ROIs. And divide the Rectangle on parts if necessary.

Test: Contour Writing

Combine everything and lets try to make our system run. We will create and object of class ContourWriting and call its main() method.

gw = ContourWriting(avg_frames=150, aweight=0.9)
gw.main()
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Output should look like the video below.

Animation and New VUI

I am highly recommending you to tune your max_count variables around the VUI class and ContourWriting class if you are working on more noisy room. Above video was taken on night hence there are many flickering poins on frames but tuning the count values works fine.

Test passed.

Finally

The final version of code should look like below.

class VUI:
    """
        A class for visual user interface. Recommended to use default parameters.
    """
    def __init__(self, icons_dir="icons/", window_size=(525, 700, 3), vui_part=20, max_count=15):
        """
            icons_dir: directory to use icons from.
            window_size: size of an vui window. Recommended to use equal of final window.
            vui_part: How much % of rows from top will be used to stack icons?

        """
        self.idir = icons_dir
        self.window = np.zeros(window_size).astype(np.uint8)
        self.size = window_size
        self.vui_part = int(vui_part/100 * self.size[0])
        self.dd_part = (self.vui_part, int(50/100 * self.size[0]))

        self.modes = [fname.split(".")[0] for fname in os.listdir(self.idir)]
        self.icon_size = (int(self.size[1]/len(self.modes)), self.vui_part) # c, r

        self.current_icons = []
        self.anim_scale = 0.5
        self.anim_color = [5, 15, 2]
        self.prev_mode = "move"
        self.current_mode = "move"
        self.running_mode = None 
        self.hover=None

        self.mode_count = 1
        self.max_count = max_count
        self.color_count = 1
        self.max_color = 5

        self.current_pointer = (100, 100)
        self.canvas_pointer = None

        self.draw_color = (0, 0, 255)
        self.previous_color = (0, 0, 255)
        self.current_color = (0, 0, 255)
        self.pointer_color = (100, 200, 200)
        self.point = (10, -3)
        self.colors=None

        self.icons = self.prepare_icons()
        self.get_window()

    def prepare_icons(self):
        """
            A method to prepare icons on initial frame.
            Method sets 4 new attributes.
            cols: List to store (y1, y2) of icon.
            icon_position: Dictionary to store (y1, y2) as key and corresponding image as value
            current_icons: A dictionary initialized with initial icons. Changed on every frame when cursor lies above it.
            mode_pos: Mode as key and its icon's (y1, y2) as value.
        """
        icons = []
        cols = np.linspace(0, self.size[1]-1, len(self.modes)+1).astype(np.int64)
        cols = [(cols[i], cols[i+1]) for i in range(len(cols)-1)]

        icon_pos = {}
        mode_pos = {}
        for i, image_name in enumerate(os.listdir(self.idir)):
            img = cv2.imread(self.idir+image_name)
            img = cv2.resize(img, (cols[i][1]-cols[i][0], self.vui_part))
            icon_pos[cols[i]] = img
            mode_pos[self.modes[i]] = cols[i]
        self.cols = cols   
        self.icon_position = icon_pos
        self.current_icons = icon_pos
        self.mode_pos = mode_pos

    def set_colors(self, col=None, new_colors=None):
        """
            A method to set colors when pointer lies above color icon.
            Initially used subset of {Red, Green, Blue}
            col:- column where current pointer lies.
            new_colors:- If to use other colors.

            Method returns list of available colors on dropdown menu. 
            Changes the draw color, pointer color upon condition meet.
        """
        # earlier pointer was clipped within the vui
        pointer = self.canvas_pointer
        pointer = (pointer[1], self.vui_part+ pointer[0])
        if new_colors is None:
            r = np.array([0, 0, 255])
            g = np.array([0, 255, 0])
            b = np.array([255, 0, 0])
            colors = [r, g, b]
            colors_new = [colors[i]+colors[i+1] for i in range(len(colors)-1)]
            colors.extend(colors_new)
            self.colors = colors
        else:
            self.colors = new_colors
        rows = np.linspace(self.dd_part[0], self.dd_part[1], len(self.colors)+1).astype(np.int64)
        rows = [(rows[i], rows[i+1]) for i in range(len(rows)-1)]
        self.color_pos = {}
        for row, color in zip(rows, colors):
            self.color_pos[row] = color
            if row[0]<=pointer[1]<row[1] and col[0]<=pointer[0]<col[1]:
                self.current_color = (color.tolist())
                if self.current_color == self.previous_color:
                    self.color_count+=1
                else:
                    self.previous_color=self.current_color
                    self.color_count = 1
                if self.color_count>=self.max_color:
                    self.draw_color=self.current_color
                self.pointer_color = (np.abs(np.array([200, 200, 100])-color).tolist())
            self.current_window[row[0]:row[1], col[0]:col[1]] = color

        return self.colors  
    def get_window(self):
        """
            A method to return a VUI window upon called. Sets pointer on VUI canvas.
        """
        self.current_window = np.zeros_like(self.window).astype(np.uint8)
        for col, img in self.current_icons.items():
            self.current_window[:self.vui_part, col[0]:col[1]] = img
        if self.running_mode == "color":
            self.set_colors(col=self.cols[self.modes.index("color")])
        if self.current_pointer is not None and self.current_pointer[0]>0:
            cv2.circle(self.current_window, (self.current_pointer[1], self.current_pointer[0]), self.point[0], self.pointer_color, self.point[1])

        return self.current_window
    def update_vui(self, pointer=(100, 100), cpointer=(10, 100)):
        """
            A method to update the entire VUI properties and state.
            pointer: Current pointer on VUI part.
            cpointer: Current pointer on Canvas.

            cpointer is useful when working with color mode.
        """
        self.current_pointer = pointer
        self.canvas_pointer = cpointer
        #print(pointer, canvas_pointer)
        current_icons = {}
        self.hover=None
        if pointer[0]<=self.vui_part:
            for col, mode in zip(self.cols, self.modes):
                icon = self.icon_position[col].copy()
                ishape = icon.shape

                #print(mode)
                if col[0]<pointer[1]<=col[1]:
                    # pointer is above this icon now animate it.
                    self.current_mode = mode
                    zeros_icon = np.zeros_like(icon).astype(np.uint8)

                    f = self.anim_scale*self.mode_count
                    r = int(ishape[0] * f)
                    c = int(ishape[1] * f)
                    icon = cv2.resize(icon, (c, r))
                    if f > 1:
                        rd = int((r - ishape[0])/2)
                        cd = int((c - ishape[1])/2)

                        zeros_icon[:, :] = icon[rd:ishape[0]+rd, cd:ishape[1]+cd] 
                    else:
                        rd = int((ishape[0] - r)/2)
                        cd = int((ishape[1] - c)/2)
                        rdd, cdd = 0, 0
                        if ishape[0]-rd-rd > r:
                            rdd=1
                        if ishape[1]-cd-cd > c:
                            cdd=1
                        #print(icon.shape, ishape, rd, abs(r-rd), cd, abs(c-cd))
                        zeros_icon[rd:ishape[0]-rd-rdd, cd:ishape[1]-cd-cdd] = icon[::] 

                    current_icons[col] = zeros_icon.astype(np.uint8) + np.uint8(np.array(self.anim_color)*self.mode_count)


                    if self.prev_mode == self.current_mode:
                        self.mode_count += 1
                    else:
                        self.prev_mode = self.current_mode
                        self.mode_count = 1
                    if self.mode_count >= self.max_count:
                        self.running_mode = self.current_mode
                        self.mode_count = 1
                        self.hover = True

                else:
                    current_icons[col] = icon

            self.current_icons = current_icons
        else:
            self.mode_count = 1

        return self.get_window()




# vui = VUI()
# #show(vui.window)
# vui.update_vui()
# vui.update_vui()
# vui.update_vui(pointer=(200, 100))
# vui.update_vui(pointer=(200, 100))

class Canvas:
    def __init__(self, window_size=(525, 700, 3), draw_color=(100, 100, 100), 
                 pointer_color=(0, 0, 0), bg_color=(25, 25, 25), mode="move", 
                 point=(10, -3), vui=None, ssize=(300, 50, 3)):
        """
            A method to initialize canvas.
            window_size: size of a canvas window.
            draw_color: drawing color in RGB.
            pointer_color: pointer color in RGB.
            bg_color: background color in RGB.
            mode: running mode.
            point: tuple of (pointer radius, thickness)
            vui: VUI object.
            ssize: Slider's size.

        """
        self.size=window_size
        self.draw_color=draw_color
        self.pointer_color = pointer_color
        self.bg_color = bg_color
        self.window = np.zeros(self.size, dtype=np.uint8)
        self.canvas= self.window.copy()+bg_color
        self.mode = mode
        self.pointer = None
        self.point = point
        self.current_window = self.window+self.canvas
        self.vui = vui
        self.ssize = ssize
        self.sregion = ()

    def slider(self, size=(300, 30, 3), spoint=50, scolor=(100, 55, 100)):
        """
            A method to change the pointer size by moving a slider.
            size: size of slider region.
            spoint: slider point, generally row position of pointer.
            scolor: slider color
        """
        swidth=10
        #swidth=int(5/50*spoint)
        #swidth = np.clip(swidth, 5, spoint)
        swindow=np.zeros(self.size).astype(np.uint8)
        swindow[:self.ssize[0], 0:self.ssize[1]] += np.uint8([255, 255, 255])  
        r1 = np.clip(spoint-swidth, swidth, self.ssize[0]-swidth)
        r2 = np.clip(spoint+swidth, swidth, self.ssize[0]-swidth)
        spoint = int(10/50 * spoint)
        #print(r1, r2, spoint)


        swindow[r1:r2, :self.ssize[1]] = scolor
        self.point=(spoint, self.point[1])
        #cv2.imshow("slider", swindow.astype(np.uint8))
        return swindow.astype(np.uint8)   
    def clear(self):
        self.window = np.zeros(self.size, dtype=np.uint8)
        self.canvas= self.window.copy()+self.bg_color
    def update_window(self, mode, pointer=(400, 100)):
        """
            mode: running mode
            pointer: where is pointer now?
        """
        self.mode = mode
        self.vui.mode=mode
        self.pointer = pointer
        self.draw_color=self.vui.draw_color
        self.pointer_color = self.vui.pointer_color
        #self.pointer = (np.clip(self.vui.vui_part, pointer[0], self.size[0]), pointer[1])
        #print("c", self.draw_color)
        swindow = np.zeros(self.size).astype(np.uint8)
        #print(pointer)
        if 0<pointer[0]<self.ssize[0] and 0<pointer[1]<self.ssize[1]:
            swindow=self.slider(spoint=pointer[0])
            self.mode = "move"
            #self.pointer = (pointer[0], pointer[1]+self.ssize[1])
            #self.pointer_color = self.bg_color
        if self.mode == "draw":
            cv2.circle(self.canvas, (self.pointer[1], self.pointer[0]), self.point[0], self.draw_color, self.point[1])
            self.current_window = self.window+self.canvas+swindow
            cv2.circle(self.current_window, (self.pointer[1], self.pointer[0]), self.point[0], self.pointer_color, self.point[1])

        elif self.mode == "erase":
            cv2.circle(self.canvas, (self.pointer[1], self.pointer[0]), self.point[0], self.bg_color, self.point[1])
            self.current_window = self.window+self.canvas+swindow
            cv2.circle(self.current_window, (self.pointer[1], self.pointer[0]), self.point[0], self.pointer_color, self.point[1])

        else:
            self.current_window = self.window+self.canvas+swindow
            cv2.circle(self.current_window, (self.pointer[1], self.pointer[0]), self.point[0], self.pointer_color, self.point[1])

        #show(self.canvas)
        #show(self.current_window)
        return self.current_window

class ContourWriting:
    """
        A class to bind all other classes uses.
    """
    def __init__(self, count_mode=10, avg_frames=100, 
                 rois={"droi":[200, 400, 430, 681],
                       "mroi":[80, 10, 150, 225], 
                       "vroi":[100, 400, 200, 681]}, 
                 icons_dir="icons/", aweight=0.5):
        """
            rois: types of ROIS(draw, move, vui)

        """
        self.aweight = aweight
        self.avg_frames=avg_frames
        self.roi_boxes = rois
        self.roi_averages = {key:None for key in rois.keys()}
        self.roi_grays = {key:None for key in rois.keys()}
        self.roi_masks = {key:None for key in rois.keys()}
        self.roi_pointer = {key:None for key in rois.keys()}
        self.roi_counts = {key:None for key in rois.keys()}
        self.size = (525, 700)
        self.set_pointer()
        self.vui = VUI()
        self.canvas_shape = (self.size[0]-self.vui.vui_part, self.size[1], 3) 

        self.canvas = Canvas(window_size=self.canvas_shape, vui=self.vui, bg_color=[255, 255, 255])
        self.running_mode = self.vui.running_mode

        self.force_modes=None
        self.fcount_mode=count_mode
        self.fcurrent_count=0
        self.fprev_mode = "move"
        self.check_force_mode()


    def set_pointer(self):
        for rname, pointer in self.roi_pointer.items():
            top, right, bottom, left = self.roi_boxes[rname]
            self.roi_pointer[rname] = (int((left+right)/2), int((top+bottom)/2))
    def running_average(self):
        for rname, roi in self.roi_averages.items():
            gimg = self.roi_grays[rname]
            if roi is None:
                roi = gimg.copy().astype("float")
            else:
                cv2.accumulateWeighted(gimg, roi, self.aweight)
            self.roi_averages[rname] = roi
    def set_grays(self, gray_frame):
        for rname, box in self.roi_boxes.items():
            top, right, bottom, left = box
            gray_roi = gray_frame[top:bottom, right:left]
            #gray_roi = cv2.bilateralFilter(gray_roi, 9, 15, 15)
            gray_roi=cv2.GaussianBlur(gray_roi, (7, 7), 0)
            self.roi_grays[rname] = gray_roi

    def make_rectangles(self, clone):
        cv2.putText(clone, f"Curr. Mode: {self.running_mode}", (self.roi_boxes["vroi"][1], self.roi_boxes["vroi"][0]-20),
                                       cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1, (0, 0, 255), 2)           
        # make rectangle for everything, add text on middle of it
        for rname, box in self.roi_boxes.items():
            top, right, bottom, left = box
            mid = int((top+bottom)/2), int((left+right)/2) 
            if rname == "droi":
                cv2.rectangle(clone, (left, top), (right, bottom), (0, 255, 0), 2)
                cv2.putText(clone, rname, (mid[1], mid[0]),
                                       cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 2, (0, 0, 255), 2)
            if rname == "mroi":

                cv2.rectangle(clone, (left, top), (int((left + right)/3), bottom), (0, 255, 0), 2)
                cv2.rectangle(clone, (int((left + right)/3), top), (2*int((left + right)/3), bottom), (0, 255, 0), 2)
                cv2.rectangle(clone, (2*int((left + right)/3), top), (right, bottom), (0, 255, 0), 2)
                cv2.putText(clone, str("Mv"), (int((right)/1), int((top+bottom)/2)),
                                           cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1, (0, 0, 255), 2)
                cv2.putText(clone, str("Dr"), (int((left + right)/3), int((top+bottom)/2)),
                                           cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1, (0, 0, 255), 2)
                cv2.putText(clone, str("Er"), (2*int((left + right)/3), int((top+bottom)/2)),
                                           cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 1, (0, 0, 255), 2)
            if rname == "vroi":
                gb_indices = int((left-right)/len(self.vui.modes))
                gb_indices = np.arange(right, left, gb_indices)
                gb_indices[-1] = gb_indices[-1]+1
                for i in range(len(gb_indices)-1):
                    _gleft = gb_indices[i]
                    _gright = gb_indices[i+1]
                    cv2.rectangle(clone, (_gleft, top), (_gright, bottom), (255, 0, 255), 3)
                    cv2.putText(clone, self.vui.modes[i][:2], (_gleft+2, int((top+bottom)/2)),
                                                       cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 0.75, (255, 0, 255), 2)
        return clone

    def find_contours(self, clone, threshold=10):
        self.roi_counts = {key:None for key in self.roi_counts.keys()}
        for rname, ravg in self.roi_averages.items():
            # abs diff betn img and bg
            top, right, bottom, left = self.roi_boxes[rname]
            diff = cv2.absdiff(ravg.astype("uint8"), self.roi_grays[rname])    
            _, th = cv2.threshold(diff, threshold, 255, cv2.THRESH_BINARY)
            (cnts, _) = cv2.findContours(th.copy(), cv2.RETR_EXTERNAL, cv2.CHAIN_APPROX_SIMPLE)
            m = (-1, -1)
            if len(cnts)!=0:
                max_cnt = max(cnts, key=cv2.contourArea)
                cv2.drawContours(clone, [max_cnt+(right,top)], -1, (0, 0, 255))   
                sshape = max_cnt.shape
                new_segmented = max_cnt.reshape(sshape[0], sshape[-1])
                m = new_segmented.min(axis=0)
                cv2.circle(clone, (right+m[0], top+m[1]), 15, self.vui.pointer_color, -3)
                self.roi_counts[rname] = len(max_cnt)
                # translate m of this roi to window shape
                #if len(max_cnt)>10:    

                if rname!="mroi":
                    pshape = self.size
                    if rname=="vroi":
                        pshape = (self.vui.vui_part, self.vui.size[1])
                    if rname=="droi":
                        # make it self.canvas.shape
                        #pshape = (self.canvas_shape[0], self.canvas_shape[1]-self.canvas.ssize[1]) 
                        pshape=self.canvas_shape
                    h = bottom - top
                    l = left - right


                    m = (int((m[0]/l)*pshape[1]), int((m[1]/h)*pshape[0]))    
                else:
                    m = (right+m[0], top+m[1])

                self.roi_pointer[rname]=(m[1], m[0])

        return clone    

    def get_window(self, canvas, vui):
        final_window = vui.copy()
        canvas_cpy = canvas.copy()
        vshape = vui.shape
        cshape = canvas.shape
        #print(self.running_mode)
        if self.running_mode == "color":
            # get part where color lies and make those part of canvas_bg black
            cp = self.vui.mode_pos[self.running_mode]
            canvas[:self.vui.dd_part[1]-self.vui.vui_part, cp[0]:cp[1]] = vui[self.vui.vui_part:self.vui.dd_part[1], cp[0]:cp[1]]

            #show(canvas)
        #else:#
        final_window[self.vui.vui_part:, :] = canvas
        cp = self.roi_pointer["droi"]
        cp = (cp[1], cp[0]+self.vui.vui_part)
        point = self.canvas.point
        cv2.circle(final_window,  cp, point[0], self.canvas.pointer_color, point[1])
        return final_window

    def check_force_mode(self):
        top, right, bottom, left = self.roi_boxes["mroi"]
        if self.force_modes is None:
            x=np.linspace(right, left, 4).astype(np.int64)
            x=[(x[i],x[i+1]) for i in range(len(x)-1)]
            force_modes = ["move", "draw", "erase"]
            force_modes = {x[i]:force_modes[i] for i in range(len(x))}
            #print(force_modes)
            self.force_modes = force_modes
        elif self.roi_pointer["mroi"][0]>0:
            mpointer = self.roi_pointer["mroi"]

            for col, mode in self.force_modes.items():

                if col[0]<=mpointer[1]<col[1]:
                    #print(col, mpointer)
                    if self.fprev_mode==mode:
                        self.fcurrent_count+=1
                    else:
                        self.fcurrent_count=0
                        self.fprev_mode=mode
                    if self.fcurrent_count>=self.fcount_mode:
                        #print("f ", mode)
                        #self.fcurrent_count=0

                        return mode
    def detector(self):
        img = self.canvas.canvas.astype(np.uint8)
        op = pytesseract.image_to_string(img, lang="eng", nice="1")
        print("Detected: ", op)
    def perform_mode(self):
        if self.running_mode=="clear":
            self.canvas.clear()
            self.running_mode="move"
        if self.running_mode=="restart":
            self.take_average =True
            self.num_frames=0
            self.running_mode="move"
            self.canvas.clear()
        if self.running_mode=="save":
            #cv2.imshow("canvas", self.canvas.canvas.astype(np.uint8))
            cv2.imwrite("canvas.png", self.canvas.canvas.astype(np.uint8))
            #cv2.destroyWindow("canvas")
            self.running_mode="move"
        if self.running_mode=="exit":
            self.key=27
        if self.running_mode=="detect":
            self.running_mode="move"
            self.detector()
    def main(self):
        cam = cv2.VideoCapture(0) 
        self.num_frames = 0
        self.take_average=True
        while True:
            (ret, frame) = cam.read()
            if ret:
                self.key = cv2.waitKey(1) & 0xFF
                frame = imutils.resize(frame, width=self.size[1])
                frame = cv2.flip(frame, 1)
                clone = frame.copy()
                gray = cv2.cvtColor(clone, cv2.COLOR_BGR2GRAY)
                self.set_grays(gray)
                self.size = frame.shape

                # if to take average and num frames on average taking is lesser than 
                if self.num_frames<self.avg_frames and self.take_average==True:
                    self.running_average()
                    cv2.putText(clone, str(self.num_frames), (self.roi_boxes["mroi"][1], self.roi_boxes["mroi"][0]-5),
                                           cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 2, (0, 0, 255), 1)
                    self.num_frames+=1
                else:
                    self.take_average=False
                    clone = self.find_contours(clone)
                    fmode = self.check_force_mode() 
                    #vui = self.vui.get_window()
                    vui = self.vui.update_vui(pointer=self.roi_pointer["vroi"], cpointer=self.roi_pointer["droi"])
                    if self.vui.hover is not None:
                        self.running_mode = self.vui.running_mode   
                    if  self.roi_counts["mroi"] is not None:
                        if self.roi_counts["vroi"] is not None:
                            if self.roi_counts["mroi"]-5 > self.roi_counts["vroi"] and fmode is not None:
                                self.running_mode = fmode
                            else:
                                self.running_mode = self.vui.running_mode       
                        else:
                            self.running_mode = fmode
                    self.perform_mode()
                    self.vui.running_mode=self.running_mode
                    canvas = self.canvas.update_window(mode=self.running_mode, 
                                                       pointer=self.roi_pointer["droi"]).astype(np.uint8)
                    final_window = self.get_window(canvas=canvas, vui=vui)
                    cv2.imshow("CW", final_window)

                    self.roi_pointer["vroi"] = (-1, -1)

                clone = self.make_rectangles(clone)
                cv2.imshow("Feed", clone)
                if self.key==27:
                    break
        cam.release()
        cv2.destroyAllWindows()

gw = ContourWriting(avg_frames=150, aweight=0.5)
gw.main()
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

I am going to point out features and shortcomings of this system now.

Codes

Codes to current version of the system is available on link below and if it is not, then hit the comment or leave me message (LinkedIn or Twitter or mail me).

Features

  • A slider can be used to change size of pointer.
  • Code is refactored and made OOP.
  • Dual hand can be used to change modes draw/move/erase pointer.
  • Color can be picked from dropdown like fashion. We can add as many color as we want.
  • Total of 9 modes available.

Shortcomings

Shortcomings are most helpful to find new feature on next version. Well here are plenty of them.

  • The system is usable by contour of anything. Hence some gesture confirming model must be used.
  • Also on above video, there can be seen pointer moving rapidly on the VUI regions. It is not always acceptable by users. Hence it must be eliminated soon.

Ideas

  • What if we can create a model that can classify gesture and we can define a certain gesture for certain mode?

What Next?

I will try to solve shortcomings on next time. But i am interested to make this system run on mobile phones too. As per now, i am thinking of taking frames from device camera and process it. Then use some API call to get those frame. I might use Unity. I am highly excited to try using LSTMs and other state of the art Deep Learning Algorithms to make this system more awesome but i don't have internet access (other than cellular data) to do broad research.

Why not read more?

Discussion

pic
Editor guide