Introduction
Welcome back to Part 6 of The Practical Guide to fpts. So far I've covered the basics of functional programming and fp concepts. Now I will shift to more advanced topics.
In this post, I will formally introduce what a monad is and how we can use the Do
Notation to simplify writing monadic code.
What is a Monad?
By now, you may have noticed I haven't said the term monad once in this entire series. This was intentional. The term monad creates a lot of confusion for newcomers to functional programming because there are many interpretations for what a monad is.
But even though I haven't said the term monad, you've been using monads throughout this entire series. Option is a monad. Either is a monad. Task is a monad.
So what is a monad?
A monad is any type that has the following instance methods:
of
map
chain (flatmap)
ap
In addition it the implementation of these methods must satisfy the following monadic laws:
 Left Identity:
of(x).chain(f) == of(f(x))
 Right Identity:
of(x).chain(of) = of(x)
 Associativity:
of(x).chain(f).chain(g) = of(x).chain(flow(f, g))
Are Monads Containers?
A common belief about monads is that they are containers. Some might refer to them as "ships in a bottle". Even though there exist some monads that would satisfy the definition of a container, not all monads are containers.
Lets see why.
When we look at the Option monad, its clear that it operates as a container over a nullable type. Its either Some(x)
or None
. Just like how Either is either Left
or Right
over some value x
.
Can we create a type that satisfies monadic properties but isn't a container? Yes we can. Just change the all the option methods to return None
.
export interface None {
readonly _tag: 'None'
}
export interface Some<A> {
readonly _tag: 'Some'
readonly value: A
}
declare type Option<A> = None  Some<A>
export declare const none: Option<never>
// this option "contains" nothing
const option = {
of: <A>(a: A) => none,
map: <A, B>(fa: Option<A>, f: (a: A) => B) => none,
chain: <A, B>(fa: Option<A>, f: (a: A) => Option<B>) => none,
ap: <A, B>(fab: Option<(a: A) => B>, fa: Option<A>) => none,
}
Our new Option is still a monad but it certainly doesn't look like a container anymore because it always returns None
.
If this trivial example passes the test for a monad, then what if we add a
console.log
to each invocation? Is it still a monad?
const option = {
of: <A>(a: A) => {
console.log('of')
return none
},
map: <A, B>(fa: Option<A>, f: (a: A) => B) => {
console.log('map')
return none
},
chain: <A, B>(fa: Option<A>, f: (a: A) => Option<B>) => {
console.log('chain')
return none
},
ap: <A, B>(fab: Option<(a: A) => B>, fa: Option<A>) => {
console.log('ap')
return none
},
}
By definition, this still obeys all monadic laws, so its still a monad. But now that I've introduced a side effect, it doesn't look like a container anymore. These side effects are reminiscent of the IO monad; IO represents a synchronous side effect.
The point I'm trying to make here is: monads are not containers over values. Rather, monads are descriptions of effects. Monads allow you to describe where in your program you have side effects (IO, Task, etc...) and where you have effects that are pure and deterministic.
What does this mean for you as a programmer?
You should strive to push all side effects to the very exterior of your program and keep your core domain logic pure. For example, if you're building a webserver, isolate your web controller and database layer as much as possible because thats where the side effects occur.
In the advanced FP world this is accomplished through the use of Free Monads or Tagless Final, but that is out of the scope for this post.
The Do Notation
Understanding monads is key to understanding the Do notation. But before we jump in, lets first understand the motivation for the Do notation.
The most common hurdle people run into when using monads is maintaining variable scope when using the chain
operator.
Lets build up an example to demonstrate this.
First, lets define 3 functions returning a Task
monad.
import * as T from 'fpts/lib/Task'
// filler values for brevity
type A = 'A'
type B = 'B'
type C = 'C'
declare const fa: () => T.Task<A>
declare const fb: (a: A) => T.Task<B>
declare const fc: (ab: { a: A; b: B }) => T.Task<C>
In order to call fc
we need to have access to the return values of fa
and fb
. If we want to normally chain these set of function calls, we would need to nest our chain calls to keep previous variables in scope.
Like so.
T.task.chain(fa(), (a) => T.task.chain(fb(a), (b) => fc({ a, b }))) // Task<"C">
This is in contrast to what we would normally write, which looks like this:
flow(fa, T.chain(fb), T.chain(fc)) // ❌ "a" will go out of scope
So how can we achieve something that looks similar to the above? We can use the Do notation!
The Do notation is similar to sequenceT
and sequenceS
in the sense that you need to provide it an instance. The difference is, sequences require the instance to be of the Apply
type (ap
+ map
) while Do requires a Monad
type (ap
+ map
+ chain
+ of
).
So lets look at the same code but using the Do notation instead.^{1}
import { Do } from 'fptscontrib/lib/Do'
Do(T.task)
.bind('a', fa()) // task
.bindL('b', ({ a } /* context */) => fb(a)) // lazy task
.bindL('c', fc) // lazy task
.return(({ c }) => c) // Task<"C">
What Do
does here is, it lets you keep the bind
the result of each task to a context variable. The first parameter in bind
is the name of the variable. The second is the value.
You may also notice there are two variants of bind: bind
and bindL
. The L
suffix stands for lazy. In this example, we don't directly provide a Task
to bindL
, we provide a function where the parameter is the context and the return value is a Task
.
And at the very end of the Do notation we add a return
call. In the previous example, we went from fa > fb > fc
to form the Task<"C">
. With the Do notation we need to specify what we want to return because just binding variables leaves us in an undefined state.
You can also view this from the imperative lens, where fa
, fb
, and fc
are synchronous functions rather than monads.
declare const fa: () => A
declare const fb: (a: A) => B
declare const fc: (ab: { a: A; b: B }) => C
;() => {
const a = fa()
const b = fb(a)
const c = fc({ a, b })
return c
}
If we wanted to introduce a side effect, say console.log
, its easy in the imperative world.
;() => {
const a = fa()
const b = fb(a)
console.log(b) // 👈 side effect
const c = fc({ a, b })
return c
}
With Do notation we can do the same with a do
invocation.
import { log } from 'fpts/lib/Console'
Do(T.task)
.bind('a', fa())
.bindL('b', ({ a }) => fb(a))
.doL(({ b }) => pipe(log(b), T.fromIO)) // 👈 side effect
.bindL('c', fc)
.return(({ c }) => c)
Do
is different from bind
in the sense that it doesn't take a name as its first argument. This means it won't be added to the context.
If you want a more indepth post about the Do
notation, check our Paul Gray's post where he covers all the Do methods.
The BuiltIn Do Notation
One of the problems with the Do notation from the fptscontrib
package is its inflexibility. Every bind
must be a monad representing the instance passed in. This means we can't switch categories from say Task
to TaskEither
. In our example, we are limited to Task
because we used Do(T.task)
.
If we were to introduce a 4th function that returns a TaskEither
, we would need to replace our instance with taskEither
and lift each Task
into TaskEither
, which is not ideal because it becomes more verbose.
import * as TE from 'fpts/lib/TaskEither'
type D = 'D'
declare const fd: (ab: { a: A; b: B; c: C }) => TE.TaskEither<D, Error>
Do(TE.taskEither)
.bind('a', TE.fromTask(fa()))
.bindL('b', ({ a }) => TE.fromTask(fb(a)))
.doL(({ b }) => pipe(log(b), T.fromIO, TE.fromTask))
.bindL('c', ({ a, b }) => TE.fromTask(fc({ a, b })))
.return(({ c }) => c)
Instead, fpts has its own notation for binding where we can switch between different monads with ease.^{2}
pipe(
T.bindTo('a')(fa()),
T.bind('b', ({ a }) => fb(a)),
T.chainFirst(({ b }) => pipe(log(b), T.fromIO)),
T.bind('c', ({ a, b }) => fc({ a, b })),
TE.fromTask,
TE.bind('d', ({ a, b, c }) => fd({ a, b, c })),
TE.map(({ d }) => d),
)
You can see that the advantage of this approach is the ease of switching between different categories of monads. Hence, I strongly recommend you use this notation over the Do
notation from the fptscontrib
package.
Conclusion
The Do notation is a powerful way of writing monadic code that makes it easy to chain functions while at the same time maintaining variable scope. Its inspired by the Haskell Do notation and Scala's foryield notation.
In Typescript, we can use the Do notation from the fptscontrib
package or the built in bind
methods. But there's another notation thats being discussed on the fpts Github. It proposes using function generators and along with yield
syntax to make monadic code look imperative. Its an interesting approach and definitely worth investigating further.
Lastly, if you're interested in my content, be sure to follow me on Twitter.
Until next time.

Note this comes from the fptscontrib package. ↩

Note
chainFirst
is the equivalent ofdoL
. ↩
Top comments (10)
How do they break the method chain within a doblock, as
Option
orEither
orCont
demands it?I'm sorry I don't understand the question. Can you rephrase it?
The evaluation of the following method chain is prematurely ended in
A
:You can easily express such control flows with nested computations but regularly not with sequential ones. Do you know how they solved this issue? Do they really break out of the chain or have to go through the entire structure? The latter would be rather inefficient.
The snippets below are functionally equivalent. It will stop at
b
because itsnone
. I'm not sure if I understand the question yet. At the end of the day its just a series of chains/flatmaps and it will "break out" on the first one that fails.I don't think you can call both computations equivalent, because the former has a sequential control flow, whereas the latter has a nested one.
Do
/bind
needs to conduct some additional plumbing to allow "short circution" as the nested chain does. And that is exactly my question. How do they do it? With a promise chain I can short circuit by invoking the error callbac, but this only works for the promise type. WithDo
, however, short circution needs to work for various monads.Maybe this is what you're talking about?
github.com/gcanti/fptscontrib/bl...
The extra plumbing is just a
map
operation to keep variables in context. If you want to do it manually here's what it does under the hood.In your example 'monad' with the console.log statements, does't this fail the first modadic law? one produces an extra log statement. Am I missing something?
Very nice article, the whole series is.
Just a question, why do you not prefer this import style?
import { either, ioEither, option } from 'fpts';
never tried 😉
I am using it all the time. It has a better DX.
1) It's more readable.
2) VSCode autoimport it correctly (you can choose it when you write it)
3) It's tree shakable.
4) No cons.