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My Journey With Spark On Kubernetes... In Python (2/3)

psclgllt profile image Pascal Gillet Updated on ・9 min read

In the previous article, we saw how to launch Spark applications with the Spark Operator. In this article, we'll see how to do the same thing, but natively with spark-submit. Let's first explain the differences between the two ways of deploying your driver on the worker nodes.

Client vs Cluster Mode

Spark-submit in cluster mode

In cluster mode, your application is submitted from a machine far from the worker machines (e.g. locally on your laptop). You need a Spark distribution installed on this machine to be able to actually run the spark-submit script.
In this mode, the script exits normally as soon as the application has been submitted. The driver is then detached and can run on its own in the kubernetes cluster. You can print the logs of the driver pod with the kubectl logs command to see the output of the application.

k8s cluster mode

It is possible to use the authenticating kubectl proxy to communicate to the Kubernetes API.

The local proxy can be started by:

kubectl proxy &
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If the local proxy is running at localhost:8001, the remote Kubernetes cluster can be reached by spark-submit by specifying --master k8s://http://127.0.0.1:8001 as an argument to spark-submit.

Spark-submit in client mode

In client mode, the spark-submit command is directly passed with its arguments to the Spark container in the driver pod. With the deploy-mode option set to client, the driver is launched directly within the spark-submit process which acts as a client to the cluster. The input and output of the application are attached to the logs from the pod.

k8s client mode

Who Does What?

With "native" Spark, we will execute Spark applications in client mode, so as not to depend on a local Spark distribution. Specifically, the user creates a driver pod resource with kubectl, and the driver pod will then run spark-submit in client mode internally to run the driver program.

With Spark Operator, a SparkApplication should set .spec.deployMode to cluster, as client is not currently implemented. Behind the scenes, the behavior is exactly the same as with native Spark: the operator's controller thus embeds a Spark distribution which plays the role of Spark scheduler; driver pods are spawned from the controller... and then run spark-submit in client mode internally to run the driver program. But this is globally transparent for the end user.

Spark Operator architecture diagram

Additional details of how SparkApplications are run can be found in the design documentation.

Driver Pod

With native Spark, the main resource is the driver pod.
To run the Pi example program like with the Spark Operator, the driver pod must be created using the data in the following YAML file:

pyspark-pi-driver-pod.yaml

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  labels:
    app-name: pyspark-pi-${PRIORITY_CLASS_NAME}${NAME_SUFFIX}
    spark-role: driver
  name: pyspark-pi-${PRIORITY_CLASS_NAME}${NAME_SUFFIX}-driver
  namespace: ${NAMESPACE}
spec:
  containers:
  - name: pyspark-pi
    image: eu.gcr.io/yippee-spark-k8s/spark-py:3.0.1
    imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
    ports:
    - containerPort: 5678
      name: headless-svc
    - containerPort: 4040
      name: web-ui
    resources:
      requests:
        memory: 512Mi
        cpu: 1
      limits:
        cpu: 1200m
    env:
    # Overriding configuration directory
    - name: SPARK_CONF_DIR
      value: /spark-conf
    - name: SPARK_HOME
      value: /opt/spark
    # Configure all key-value pairs in ConfigMap as container environment variables
    envFrom:
      - configMapRef:
          name: pyspark-pi-${PRIORITY_CLASS_NAME}${NAME_SUFFIX}-cm
    args:
    - $(SPARK_HOME)/bin/spark-submit
    - /opt/spark/examples/src/main/python/pi.py
    - "10"
    volumeMounts:
      - name: spark-config
        mountPath: /spark-conf
        readOnly: true
  affinity:
    nodeAffinity:
      requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
        nodeSelectorTerms:
          - matchExpressions:
            - key: type
              operator: In
              values: [${DRIVER_NODE_AFFINITIES}]
  priorityClassName: ${PRIORITY_CLASS_NAME}
  restartPolicy: OnFailure
  schedulerName: volcano
  serviceAccountName: ${SERVICE_ACCOUNT_NAME}
  volumes:
    # Add the executor pod template in read-only volume, for the driver to read
    - name: spark-config
      configMap:
        name: pyspark-pi-${PRIORITY_CLASS_NAME}${NAME_SUFFIX}-cm
        items:
        - key: spark-defaults.conf
          path: spark-defaults.conf
        - key: spark-env.sh
          path: spark-env.sh
        - key: executor-pod-template.yaml
          path: executor-pod-template.yaml
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Don't pay attention to the variable placeholders for now, even though you can imagine what they can be used for.

As you can see, the driver pod depends on other Kubernetes resources. We will detail each of them.

Spark Configuration

We use a ConfigMap for setting Spark configuration data separately from the driver pod definition.

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  labels:
    app-name: spark-${PRIORITY_CLASS_NAME}${NAME_SUFFIX}
  name: spark-${PRIORITY_CLASS_NAME}${NAME_SUFFIX}-cm
  namespace: ${NAMESPACE}
data:
  # Comma-separated list of .zip, .egg, or .py files dependencies for Python apps.
  # spark.submit.pyFiles can be used instead in spark-defaults.conf below.
  # PYTHONPATH: ...
  spark-env.sh: |
    #!/usr/bin/env bash

    export DUMMY=dummy
    echo "Here we are, ${DUMMY}!"
  spark-defaults.conf: |
    spark.master                                k8s://https://kubernetes.default
    spark.submit.deployMode                     client

    spark.executor.instances                    2
    spark.executor.cores                        1
    spark.executor.memory                       512m

    spark.kubernetes.executor.container.image   eu.gcr.io/yippee-spark-k8s/spark-py:3.0.1
    spark.kubernetes.container.image.pullPolicy IfNotPresent
    spark.kubernetes.namespace                  spark-jobs
    # Must match the mount path of the ConfigMap volume in driver pod
    spark.kubernetes.executor.podTemplateFile   /spark-conf/executor-pod-template.yaml
    spark.kubernetes.pyspark.pythonVersion      2
    spark.kubernetes.driver.pod.name            spark-${PRIORITY_CLASS_NAME}${NAME_SUFFIX}-driver

    spark.driver.host                           spark-${PRIORITY_CLASS_NAME}${NAME_SUFFIX}-driver-svc
    spark.driver.port                           5678

    # Config params for use with an ingress to expose the Web UI
    spark.ui.proxyBase                          /spark-${PRIORITY_CLASS_NAME}${NAME_SUFFIX}
    # spark.ui.proxyRedirectUri                   http://<load balancer static IP address>
  executor-pod-template.yaml: |
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      labels:
        app-name: spark-${PRIORITY_CLASS_NAME}${NAME_SUFFIX}
        spark-role: executor
    spec:
      affinity:
        nodeAffinity:
          requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
            nodeSelectorTerms:
            - matchExpressions:
              - key: type
                operator: In
                values: [${EXECUTOR_NODE_AFFINITIES}]
      priorityClassName: ${PRIORITY_CLASS_NAME}
      schedulerName: volcano
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Executor Pod Template

We use a template file in the ConfigMap to define the executor pod configuration. Templates are typically used for configuring Spark pods that cannot be configured otherwise, via Spark properties or environment variables. Thus, template files mostly contain fine-grained configuration related to deployment at the Kubernetes level: here, the node affinity and the priority class name.

To make the pod template file accessible to the spark-submit process, we must set the Spark property spark.kubernetes.executor.podTemplateFile with its local pathname in the driver pod. To do so, the file will be automatically mounted onto a volume in the driver pod when it’s created.

Executor Pod Garbage Collection

We must also set spark.kubernetes.driver.pod.name for the executors to the name of the driver pod. When this property is set, the Spark scheduler will deploy the executor pods with an ownerReference, which in turn will ensure that once the driver pod is deleted from the cluster, all of the application’s executor pods will also be deleted.

Client Mode Networking

In client mode, the driver runs inside a pod. Spark executors must be able to connect to the Spark driver by the means of Kubernetes networking. To do that, we use a headless service to allow the driver pod to be routable from the executors by a stable hostname. When deploying the headless service, we ensure that the service will only match the driver pod and no other pods by assigning the driver pod a (sufficiently) unique label and by using that label in the label selector of the headless service. We can then pass to the executors the driver’s hostname via spark.driver.host with the service name and the spark driver’s port to spark.driver.port.

spark-driver-svc.yaml

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  labels:
    app-name: spark-${PRIORITY_CLASS_NAME}${NAME_SUFFIX}
  name: spark-${PRIORITY_CLASS_NAME}${NAME_SUFFIX}-driver-svc
  namespace: spark-jobs
spec:
  clusterIP: None
  ports:
  - name: 5678-5678
    port: 5678
    protocol: TCP
    targetPort: 5678
  selector:
    app-name: spark-${PRIORITY_CLASS_NAME}${NAME_SUFFIX}
    spark-role: driver
  type: ClusterIP
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Spark UI

Ingress

The Spark UI is accessible by creating a service of type ClusterIP which exposes the UI from the driver pod:

spark-ui-svc.yaml

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  labels:
    app-name: spark-${PRIORITY_CLASS_NAME}${NAME_SUFFIX}
  name: spark-${PRIORITY_CLASS_NAME}${NAME_SUFFIX}-ui-svc
  namespace: spark-jobs
spec:
  ports:
  - name: spark-driver-ui-port
    port: 4040
    protocol: TCP
    targetPort: 4040
  selector:
    app-name: spark-${PRIORITY_CLASS_NAME}${NAME_SUFFIX}
    spark-role: driver
  type: ClusterIP
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With this service alone, the UI is only accessible from inside the cluster. We must then create an Ingress to expose the UI outside the cluster. In order for the Ingress resource to work, the cluster must have an ingress controller
running. You can choose the ingress controller implementation that best fits your cluster.
Traefik and Nginx are very popular choices. The ingress below is configured for Nginx:

spark-ui-ingress.yaml

apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
  labels:
    app-name: spark-${PRIORITY_CLASS_NAME}${NAME_SUFFIX}
  name: spark-${PRIORITY_CLASS_NAME}${NAME_SUFFIX}-ui-ingress
  namespace: spark-jobs
  annotations:
    kubernetes.io/ingress.class: nginx
    nginx.ingress.kubernetes.io/rewrite-target: /$2
    nginx.ingress.kubernetes.io/proxy-redirect-from: "http://$host/"
    nginx.ingress.kubernetes.io/proxy-redirect-to: "http://$host/spark-${PRIORITY_CLASS_NAME}${NAME_SUFFIX}/"
spec:
  rules:
  - http:
      paths:
      - path: /spark-${PRIORITY_CLASS_NAME}${NAME_SUFFIX}(/|$)(.*)
        backend:
          serviceName: spark-${PRIORITY_CLASS_NAME}${NAME_SUFFIX}-ui-svc
          servicePort: 4040
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The Ingress is backed by as many services as driver pods that run concurrently in the cluster. Each UI must then be addressed with a unique path in the Ingress. The path in question is directly derived from the name of the Spark application, with its unique ID.

The interface is always available at http://<driver-pod-ip>:4040 (from inside the cluster), as each driver pod is assigned a unique IP and there is only one SparkContext running in the pod host (otherwise, the UI would be bound to successive ports beginning with 4040: 4041, 4042, etc).

So, natively, the different UIs that might be available at a given time on a same host are only differentiated by their assigned port number. The UI has been designed following that principle, and all HTTP operations are performed relatively to the same root path in the URL, which is.../.

So for the UI to be effectively accessible through the Ingress, we must set up HTTP redirection with an alternative root path (the one configured in the Ingress). To work smoothly, the UI itself must be aware of this redirection by setting spark.ui.proxyBase to this root path...and that's it!

Spark Operator

The operator supports creating an optional Ingress for the Spark Web UI. This can be turned on by setting the ingress-url-format command-line flag. The ingress-url-format should be a template like {{$appName}}.{ingress_suffix}/{{$appNamespace}}/{{$appName}}. The {ingress_suffix} should be replaced by the user to indicate the cluster's Ingress url and the operator will replace the {{$appName}} and {{$appNamespace}} with the appropriate value. Please note that Ingress support requires that cluster's Ingress url routing is correctly setup. For e.g. if the ingress-url-format is {{$appName}}.ingress.cluster.com, it requires that anything *.ingress.cluster.com should be routed to the Ingress controller on the K8s cluster.

Example of Spark Operator install with the ingress-url-format command-line flag:

./helm install spark-operator incubator/sparkoperator --namespace spark-operator --set enableWebhook=true --set enableBatchScheduler=true --set ingressUrlFormat="\{\{\$appName\}\}.ingress.cluster.com"
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Note that curly braces must be escaped.

Future Work

I could not enable the Spark Operator Ingress during my experiments, simply because a DNS name is required. Instead, the same Ingress as for native Spark is "grafted" to the SparkApplication, with path-based routing.

The operation proposed by the Spark Operator, with routing based on hostname wildcards (for example *.ingress.cluster.com), is nevertheless interesting as it would overcome the problem of HTTP redirect described above.

With hostname wildcards, and therefore without the HTTP redirect, the UI service could be switched to NodePort type (a NodePort service exposes the Service on each Node's IP at a static port) and still be compatible with the Ingress.
The UI would thus be accessible outside the cluster through both the Ingress with its external URL configured, and the NodePort service at http://<node-ip>:<service-port>. A service of type NodePort is still relevant in a private cloud.

Object Names and Labels

We use the app-name label to semantically group all the Kubernetes resources related to a single Spark application.
In our case, this label provides uniqueness, and we do not expect multiple Spark applications to carry the same value for this label (at least in the namespace-time considered).

For a given Spark application, all the object names are then derived from the app-name. We simply add a suffix which also qualifies the type of the object: -driver for the driver pod, -driver-svc for the driver service, -ui-svc for the Spark UI service, -ui-ingress for the Spark UI ingress, and -cm for the ConfigMap.

We also set the label spark-role at the pod level to differentiate the drivers from their executors.

This naming and labeling is consistent with the Spark Operator. As a result, Spark applications can be treated and filtered in the same way, whether they are launched with the Spark Operator or with spark-submit. 👍

Deployment

We have now managed to mimic the same behavior we got with the Spark Operator, here is what we have deployed in Kubernetes:

spark submit

Now that we've defined all of our Kubernetes resources for spark-submit, we're going to get our hands on some Python code to orchestrate all of this. See you in the third and final article in this series.

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