CSS is an art, and it's dying. A reflection on CSS and JS frameworks and the evolution of CSS

wwsalmon profile image Samson Zhang Originally published at samsonzhang.com ・8 min read

Originally published on my blog

I’ve been working through the serverless-stack.com tutorial. It’s awesome, teaching you how to set up an AWS backend, React front-end, and now is going through CI/CD through Seed. Like most tutorials, it does feel like I’m just going through the process, not copy-pasting but reading and re-writing code without being too sure of what it all does and why I’m using it; really in-depth learning only comes with time and experience: building your own project from scratch, dealing with all the considerations, use cases, and bugs that come with that. The usage of Seed instead of CircleCI or TravisCI like I see on almost every repo is also a reminder of the dizzying amount of options out there. I had briefly made a foray into learning MongoDB and Express before this current serverless endeavor, and it seems to be something many recruiters want to see; and there are a million alternatives to the React frontend, from other JS frameworks like Angular and Vue to ditching this totally and just writing straight JS.

The Seed website seemed to use the same AWS and React Bootstrap components that the Serverless tutorial was teaching, so somehow I went into a slight rabbithole and ended up on the website of Mark Otto, the creator of Bootstrap, also the top designer at GitHub and Twitter before that (it suddenly made sense why GitHub uses Bootstrap). Scrolling through his projects, I saw a bunch of really cool resources and minisites. A “code guide” with HTML/CSS quality standards and conventions; a concept for HTML elements redesigned for more modern use cases; and “A curated list of commonly frustrating HTML and CSS quandaries, miscues, and dilemmas.”

Reading through these pages, I was struck by a sense of nostalgia. At the bottom of the HTML section of the Code Guide, just a two-sentence sidenote, was: “Writing markup in a JavaScript file makes the content harder to find, harder to edit, and less performant. Avoid it whenever possible.” The assertion “JS bad” seems to come up at every conference and on every blog. JS slow, JS inaccessible, JS bad for SEO, JS bad for mobile. And the counterargument — you’re ignoring the developer experience, JS frameworks make it 20x easier and faster to build a powerful web app, build and optimize from there. Ship ship ship. Done is better than perfect. But Mark Otto’s two line snippet didn’t seem to be referring to this, the mess of frameworks and CSS-in-JS and everything else that we’ve found ourselves in. It seems to be speaking of a simpler time, when JS meant scripts adding functionality to a website, not the backbone of the website itself. When being a front-end web developer meant writing nicely organized HTML and perfectly cascading CSS — almost the opposite of what I was invested so heavily in learning now.

To be sure, if you haven’t been able to tell yet, I don’t claim to be anything near a professional web developer. All this fancy JS stuff, backend stuff, most of really high-value web development skills today I’m just getting into. Even for static websites, I’ve never worked with huge codebases and design systems, tested across every browser and device and connection speed, squeezed out every byte and millisecond of loading time from a website. But I’ve read about these things obsessively, and when it comes out to just bashing out a website, I’m confident that I can do it well. At this point, CSS feels like a native language to me. Sure, maybe I don’t memorize all the ins and outs of the grammar, but I grew up with it and so know it comprehensively by experience: all the ways to say something, what “sounds” right and what works but “sounds” wrong, what is good or bad practice not by memorization but by experience. Often I feel faster and more creative designing by bashing out code than in Illustrator. Alternatively, give me a mockup and I can implement it with five completely different sets of CSS.

Recently, I came across something like the following in a friend’s project:

      display: flex;
      justify-content: center;

      display: flex;

      width: 1200px;

What on earth? I asked him what his thinking was. “The program where I learned CSS said to use flexbox on everything,” he told me.

Just to center a top level container! Whatever happened to margin: 0 auto? Oh, man. Maybe I was just lagging behind the times — was this really best practice now? I remember when flexbox was the dreamlike new thing on the scene, the solution to all of our CSS alignment problems, the end of floats and clearfixes and tables (my friend will never know of these dark ages, I guess). Browser support was barely existent, and “A Complete Guide to Flexbox” had just been published on the CSS-Tricks frontpage. Sparingly, I began integrating it into my own projects. Today, it’s a crucial part of my toolkit, but one I chose to take out when needed, not anything like a default. Now we’ve got Grid, too. New CSS developers these days are spoiled.

And CSS frameworks! Bootstrap was heavy, I had always heard. Makes sense for huge web apps, but way overkill for my tiny little websites. And it was just cleaner and easier to get exactly what I wanted with my own from-scratch code. But now, what do we have? Developers aren’t even writing straight CSS anymore. Atomic frameworks like the currently hugely popular Tailwind CSS are the default. Instead of applying classes in HTML and carefully putting together a harmonious stylesheet, you just apply w-16, h-16, mx-auto classes to your markup, and bam — width: 16px, height: 16px, margin: 0 auto.

My gut reaction to this is, nononononono. I want to keep writing the CSS I know and love. It’s elegant, it’s beautiful, it’s my craft. CSS is almost a part of my identity at this point: my artistry, my outlet of creative expression, my value proposition as a part of society. These new frameworks, not to mention ideas like CSS-in-JS and pre-styled React component libraries, seem to be ripping CSS as I know it away from me, threatening to rip a chunk of my very being away from me. And I’m not alone in this — Chris Hawkes, for example, pretty much voices the same sentiment in his video “Why I Don’t Like Tailwind CSS” (though I disagree with him that SASS is similar — SASS is still cascading, is still CSS properties, is still what makes CSS CSS in my heart; I love it and use it extensively).

Yet, resisting means risking straggling behind the unstopping forward-marching standard of “this is the way that things are done.” There are far more advocates than detractors for atomic frameworks. Hawke’s video has 205 dislikes to 241 likes, for example. And these frameworks don’t just throw away CSS — they are built upon the deepest understanding of and experience with it, not just in technical aspects but in core design philosophy. A comment by a Tailwind CSS community manager on Hawke’s video links to a few essays dating back all the way to 2012 diving into HTML and CSS semantics and scalability. They make a compelling argument of the inherent difficulty of writing and maintaining large CSS codebases by virtue of its cascading nature, the proposed solution being using utility classes. This is exactly the solution that utility-focused atomic frameworks provide.

These frameworks being thoroughly thought-out and considered, however, doesn't mean that their users are inheriting this CSS knowledge and understanding. The most common developer-perspective argument I’ve heard for using CSS frameworks is rooted in the “ship ship ship” rapid iteration mindset that seems to be the foundation of the software development and tech industries. Frameworks allow developers to stop worrying about carefully maintaining CSS and instead focus on building and improving their product. CSS, then, is no longer a language to learn by immersion, by painstaking honing of understanding and technique through time and experience, but rather an ugly back layer, a necessary evil, to hide away behind conveniently designed frameworks and component libraries. The understanding of CSS as a fundamental and artistic skill, like sketching with pencil on paper for painters and digital artists, necessary to learn first, learn well, and continuously practice, is dying, maybe dead.

Maybe this is overly drastic or simplistic. W3C certainly isn’t stopping their work tirelessly assessing and improving CSS. Web development is a huge field and industry; not every website is a JS-based webapp that can ditch CSS, and most jobs will still require direct hands-on CSS work. Using frameworks doesn’t allow you to forego CSS knowledge entirely, either. Utility classes correspond to CSS properties; understanding CSS patterns and behavior is crucial to using them well, as I was reminded of while watching Tailwind CSS developer Adam Wathan work through different combinations of flexbox and margin classes to get part of a Coinbase clone looking right. And if nothing else, developers specializing in CSS will be needed to maintain and build frameworks and libraries.

Yet, the state of and most useful skills in web development will continue to ever evolve, and the practice of artistic, intricate, unmaintainable CSS seems to be taking more and more of a backseat. The starkest difference might be in new developers. Sure, intro courses will still start with the basics of HTML and CSS; but moving into any sort of bigger project, frameworks will be much easier to use and in most ways much more effective than slowly mastering raw CSS with time. More developers will be like my friend, setting display: flex on everything, struggling with more complex layouts. And maybe that’s okay.

Maybe it’s even for the better. For me, leaving CSS behind is certainly a bigger step forward: moving beyond static web dev, towards JS, towards full-stack, to more powerful frameworks, to bigger and better things. In some ways, particularly with regards to CSS, my perspective is that of a teacher, someone who has been around and knows what I’m doing. Zooming out a bit, though, I’m still very much a student, early in my learning process. From this perspective, I have one last analogy to offer.

CSS is like arithmetic. It’s at the very base layer of the web, what browser engines process to spit out what’s on the screen. Here are the axioms that just are, by very definition of the system. CSS frameworks, then, are like algebra. The problems they solve are essentially arithmetic problems, but abstracted a layer. After a while, any arithmetic that you do only passes by in the back of your mind; you think instead in terms of variables, functions, and roots, like utility classes and components to CSS properties. Even higher level JS frameworks and CSS-in-JS, then, are like calculus, abstracting on algebra, providing a whole new pattern for how websites are defined and built. (SASS is like arithmetic tricks, like learning factoring or divisibility rules that provide you shortcuts without actually learning the algebra that makes them work.) As a student, then, maybe my bemoaning the death of CSS as an art is simply that of a student growing out of his comfort zone.

But CSS, in its beautiful, raw, sometimes badly-written form, will forever (probably…?) remain at the core of the web as we know it. Maybe the whole field is moving forward, abstracting on top of it, so new developers can make use of it faster and better; but I’m glad that I started learning web development before atomic frameworks blew up, before grid, before flexbox, when avoiding Javascript for front-end development was a valuable and feasible thing, when CSS was an art and a language I immersed myself in. Now I’m in time to move along with the field, my knowledge of what once was allowing me to especially appreciate what now is and what’s to come.

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Samson Zhang


Incoming CS major @Georgia Tech. Lots of static web dev experience (♥ CSS, WP), learning full-stack JS dev!


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Nice article ! I completely agree on what you are saying about frameworks like tailwind css.
I think keeping markup (HTML) and styles (CSS) separated leads to a far cleaner codebase, instead of defining your styles within class names.

But I think there are cool tools built around CSS like simple SASS or all the CSS-in-JS libraries for example, which just makes it easier to write css.
In the end use what fits your application or your team the best


Hi Samson,

I really appreciated your musings on CSS past and future. I am posting because I want to be at least one voice urging you to pay attention to your gut and make intelligent decisions for yourself about how these questions should be answered.

There is an exceptionally toxic undercurrent of weirdly ageist exceptionalism that flows through the current generation of new developers, and regardless of whether you buy into the notion that they are somehow smarter and wiser than all previous generations of web nerds or not, it's hard to argue that they aren't a bit of a gang - with all of the dick measuring and group-think that comes with joining a gang. Gangs are not usually super keen on hearing dissenting views, only that they are the best and they have it all figured out, they are the ones whose ideas will win.

Thing is, when my friends and I created Sass, we weren't trying to win anything. We just saw some clever ways to make working with CSS better, and what do you know, a lot of those ideas are now either in the CSS spec or parroted by every tool that touches it. The same could be said of jQuery: trendy to hate in 2020, but all of these agro nerd sub-bosses seem to forget that we can thank jQuery for the querySelector engine, DOM events and the fetch API.

One of the key motivations behind both Haml and Sass which everyone seems to forget or ignore now, was that the markup itself should be beautiful. This was a good decade before the obfuscate/minify/pack thing took over. We felt pride when we could view source and see the secrets laid bare in a structured, attractive way.

I'll admit, I think CSS-in-JS is an abomination. I think the notion of putting everything into one file is charmingly academic, but incredibly difficult to maintain in the wild. That's just my opinion.

Tailwind is a lot more nuanced. Here's the thing: I'm not a designer. I have a comfortable working understanding of the CSS properties and given enough time I can usually achieve the layouts I see in my mind without too many gross hacks. This means that Bootstrap 4 - the CSS, not so much the JS - has been my go-to weapon of choice and that isn't likely to change, for some excellent reasons.

First of all, Tailwind's open-ended flexibility makes the damning assumption that I've been previously held back from realizing some beautiful design that Bootstrap was making difficult or impossible. The opposite is true: I know when something is ugly, but I absolutely rely on the massive ecosystem of paid and free themes available to Bootstrap developers. You could say that I'm just good enough with CSS to take a theme and customize the last 30% of it so it looks unique to what I'm working on. But if you give me a blank slate, it's going to look like an Intel clean room. I have no ability to mix colors, choose typeography, or conceptualize how a UI should be built up that doesn't start from someone else giving me the foundation to build on. Having all of the raw building blocks is like being gifted a DNA synthesizer and told to make lunch.

Second, that massive theme ecosystem. Tailwind has the official $250 UI component library paying for Adam Wathan's kids to go to college some day. Bravo on that whole endeavor. But it is in no way whatsoever a stand-in for the tens of thousands of themes I can buy for $30. Those themes will save me days or weeks of effort and give me a structure for the kind of app I'm building. Pretending like most of the Bootstrap users don't need themes ignores that the total user base of Tailwind is likely going to hit a hard limit, at least so long as things like Shopify and Wordpress are popular.

Third, that thing I said about caring what the markup looks like. Perhaps my least favourite aspect of Tailwind is the class soup. I know that there's tricks you can do with @apply but by-and-large, Tailwind folks seem to give zero fucks about how ugly what I'll call Tailwind-infected HTML actually looks like. It means that every element on your page is likely wider than your screen on a laptop, and that's kind of nuts. I'm looking at shit like this (click code on any example) and wondering why nobody else is alarmed.

Samson, you are clearly a smart person. Please don't fall into the trap of believing that any of these new technologies have been somehow decided as the way forward. They are really popular in some startup circles and on sites like dev.to, but these are places where the average age is young enough that even the really smart folks haven't been around long enough to see a few pendulum cycles. The future of React, for example, is not the assumption of supremacy some people portray it to be. It was designed for Facebook-sized problems. Most people don't have those, so shame on the bootcamps for teaching young people the trendy thing. Already we're seeing technologies like StimulusReflex and LiveView demonstrating that you can achieve better results, faster than any SPA can be built. So suddenly placing all eggs in the React basket seems regrettable.

Don't go quietly into the JS-for-everything-or-you're-a-nostalgic-dinosaur night.


I posted this on IndieHackers as well, and got some really insightful replies there!

I think the most interesting point was from a couple of really veteran developers, who have been around for a decade+ and have seen trends come and go. Their perspective is just that: this fixation on JS frameworks, on React, on CSS-in-JS, are just trends, hot now but nothing like a general future direction for the field.

From dmw: "Ten years ago I wrote an entire client side MVC in Google Closure and Soy. It was a multi-kLOC application to render interior maps and do space planning with HTML5 Canvas. Zero pieces of the tech I used then are in common use today, zero. I can say confidently, vanilla web dev has never been been better." What matters are the fundamental skills: CSS and Vanilla JS, which can be used in a million different ways but always with them at the foundation, their standards constantly being improved in their own right.

dhruvg had another good analogy: "It is like buying furniture. I don't see myself devoting my life to carpentry, so I will go to IKEA which will make my life easy. I don't care why the nuts and bolts are a given size; I just trust IKEA that my bed won't fall apart. But if I got interested in carpentry with dreams of making my own furniture, with my unique style, and selling it on Etsy, then I better damn well understand which size nuts and bolts to use where."


hi, one more thing bro I see your website, The elements which are in svg tag are no working fine in max-width:768px, You should fix it

All over you site is awesome


Thanks! And yeah, that little homepage thing has always been a little finicky haha, I'll get around to fixing it one day maybe


It really inspired bro, but i have never ever used frameworks or libs for CSS. Yeah I have used for JS like jQuery, paper.js and more.


Beautiful article!
CSS is a dying art form <3


No, no, no, no!

It does not have to be this way. I reject this, for all of us.

I am now officially being a broken record, but check out StimulusReflex. It is just one piece of evidence that things don't need to suck.

I'm not saying that you should quit, but each of us need to take a bit of an activist stance when it comes to being told things like "if you don't feel jubilant about containers, microservices, serverless and writing CSS in JS, you are stupid or old or old and stupid".