DEV Community πŸ‘©β€πŸ’»πŸ‘¨β€πŸ’»

Cover image for 😱 Static HTML Export with i18n compatibility in Next.js 😱
Adriano Raiano
Adriano Raiano

Posted on • Updated on

😱 Static HTML Export with i18n compatibility in Next.js 😱

You know Next.js, right? - If not, stop reading this article and make something else.

Next.js is awesome! It gives you the best developer experience with all the features you need...

TOC

BUT, you may have heard about this:

Error: i18n support is not compatible with next export. See here for more info on deploying: https://nextjs.org/docs/deployment

This happens if you're using the internationalized routing feature and are trying to generate a static HTML export by executing next export.
Well, this features requires a Node.js server, or dynamic logic that cannot be computed during the build process, that's why it is unsupported.

This is the case if you're using next-i18next for example.

So what can we do now?

what

An obvious option is, to renounce to the static HTML export and use a Node.js server or Vercel as deployment environment.

But sometimes, due to company or architectural guidelines it is mandatory to use a static web server.


Ok then renounce to i18n? - Not really, if we are here, it seems like to be a requirement.


So then do it without Next.js? - But this usually means to rewrite the whole project.

Executing next export when not using i18n seems to work.
What if we do not try to use the internationalized routing feature and do the i18n routing on our own?

The recipe

recipe

To "cook" this recipe you will need the following ingredients:

  • use the dynamic route segments feature
  • willingness to change the structure of your project files
  • willingness to adapt a bit of code
  • a logic to detect the user language and redirect accordingly

Sounds feasible. Let's start!

1. Remove the i18n options from next.config.js.

  - const { i18n } = require('./next-i18next.config')
  - 
  module.exports = {
  -   i18n,
    trailingSlash: true,
  }
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

2. Create a [locale] folder inside your pages directory.

a) Move all your pages files to that folder (not _app.js or _document.js etc..).

b) Adapt your imports, if needed.

3. Create a getStatic.js file and place it for example in a lib directory.

  import { serverSideTranslations } from 'next-i18next/serverSideTranslations';
  import i18nextConfig from '../next-i18next.config'

  export const getI18nPaths = () =>
    i18nextConfig.i18n.locales.map((lng) => ({
      params: {
        locale: lng
      }
    }))

  export const getStaticPaths = () => ({
    fallback: false,
    paths: getI18nPaths()
  })

  export async function getI18nProps(ctx, ns = ['common']) {
    const locale = ctx?.params?.locale
    let props = {
      ...(await serverSideTranslations(locale, ns))
    }
    return props
  }

  export function makeStaticProps(ns = {}) {
    return async function getStaticProps(ctx) {
      return {
        props: await getI18nProps(ctx, ns)
      }
    }
  }
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

4. Use getStaticPaths and makeStaticProps in your pages, like this:

  import { useTranslation } from 'next-i18next'
  import { getStaticPaths, makeStaticProps } from '../../lib/getStatic'
  import { Header } from '../../components/Header'
  import { Footer } from '../../components/Footer'
  import Link from '../../components/Link'

  + const getStaticProps = makeStaticProps(['common', 'footer'])
  + export { getStaticPaths, getStaticProps }

  const Homepage = () => {
    const { t } = useTranslation('common')

    return (
      <>
        <main>
          <Header heading={t('h1')} title={t('title')} />
          <div>
            <Link href='/second-page'><button type='button'>{t('to-second-page')}</button></Link>
          </div>
        </main>
        <Footer />
      </>
    )
  }

  export default Homepage
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

5. Install next-language-detector.

npm i next-language-detector

6. Create a languageDetector.js file and place it for example in the lib directory.

  import languageDetector from 'next-language-detector'
  import i18nextConfig from '../next-i18next.config'

  export default languageDetector({
    supportedLngs: i18nextConfig.i18n.locales,
    fallbackLng: i18nextConfig.i18n.defaultLocale
  })
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

7. Create a redirect.js file and place it for example in the lib directory.

  import { useEffect } from 'react'
  import { useRouter } from 'next/router'
  import languageDetector from './languageDetector'

  export const useRedirect = (to) => {
    const router = useRouter()
    to = to || router.asPath

    // language detection
    useEffect(() => {
      const detectedLng = languageDetector.detect()
      if (to.startsWith('/' + detectedLng) && router.route === '/404') { // prevent endless loop
        router.replace('/' + detectedLng + router.route)
        return
      }

      languageDetector.cache(detectedLng)
      router.replace('/' + detectedLng + to)
    })

    return <></>
  };

  export const Redirect = () => {
    useRedirect()
    return <></>
  }

  // eslint-disable-next-line react/display-name
  export const getRedirect = (to) => () => {
    useRedirect(to)
    return <></>
  }
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

8. For each of your pages files in your [locale] directory, but especially for the index.js file, create a file with the same name with this content:

  import { Redirect } from '../lib/redirect'
  export default Redirect
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

9. Create a Link.js component and place it for example in the components directory.

  import React from 'react'
  import Link from 'next/link'
  import { useRouter } from 'next/router'

  const LinkComponent = ({ children, skipLocaleHandling, ...rest }) => {
    const router = useRouter()
    const locale = rest.locale || router.query.locale || ''

    let href = rest.href || router.asPath
    if (href.indexOf('http') === 0) skipLocaleHandling = true
    if (locale && !skipLocaleHandling) {
      href = href
        ? `/${locale}${href}`
        : router.pathname.replace('[locale]', locale)
    }

    return (
      <>
        <Link href={href}>
          <a {...rest}>{children}</a>
        </Link>
      </>
    )
  }

  export default LinkComponent
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

10. Replace al next/link Link imports with the appropriate ../components/Link Link import:

  - import Link from 'next/link'
  + import Link from '../../components/Link'
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

11. Add or modify your _document.js file to set the correct html lang attribute:

  import Document, { Html, Head, Main, NextScript } from 'next/document'
  import i18nextConfig from '../next-i18next.config'

  class MyDocument extends Document {
    render() {
      const currentLocale = this.props.__NEXT_DATA__.query.locale || i18nextConfig.i18n.defaultLocale
      return (
        <Html lang={currentLocale}>
          <Head />
          <body>
            <Main />
            <NextScript />
          </body>
        </Html>
      )
    }
  }

  export default MyDocument
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

12. In case you have a language switcher, create or adapt it:

  // components/LanguageSwitchLink.js
  import languageDetector from '../lib/languageDetector'
  import { useRouter } from 'next/router'
  import Link from 'next/link'

  const LanguageSwitchLink = ({ locale, ...rest }) => {
    const router = useRouter()

    let href = rest.href || router.asPath
    let pName = router.pathname
    Object.keys(router.query).forEach((k) => {
      if (k === 'locale') {
        pName = pName.replace(`[${k}]`, locale)
        return
      }
      pName = pName.replace(`[${k}]`, router.query[k])
    })
    if (locale) {
      href = rest.href ? `/${locale}${rest.href}` : pName
    }

    return (
      <Link
        href={href}
        onClick={() => languageDetector.cache(locale)}
      >
        <button style={{ fontSize: 'small' }}>{locale}</button>
      </Link>
    );
  };

  export default LanguageSwitchLink
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode
  // components/Footer.js
  import { useTranslation } from 'next-i18next'
  import { useRouter } from 'next/router'
  import LanguageSwitchLink from './LanguageSwitchLink'
  import i18nextConfig from '../next-i18next.config'

  export const Footer = () => {
    const router = useRouter()
    const { t } = useTranslation('footer')
    const currentLocale = router.query.locale || i18nextConfig.i18n.defaultLocale

    return (
      <footer>
        <p>
          <span style={{ lineHeight: '4.65em', fontSize: 'small' }}>{t('change-locale')}</span>
          {i18nextConfig.i18n.locales.map((locale) => {
            if (locale === currentLocale) return null
            return (
              <LanguageSwitchLink
                locale={locale}
                key={locale}
              />
            )
          })}
        </p>
      </footer>
    )
  }
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

The outcome

result

If you now start your project (next dev) you should see, more or less, the same behaviour as before.

So what's the benefit?

Try: next build && next export

You should see something like this at the end:

●  (SSG)     automatically generated as static HTML + JSON (uses getStaticProps)

info  - using build directory: /Users/usr/projects/my-awesome-project/.next
info  - Copying "static build" directory
info  - No "exportPathMap" found in "/Users/usr/projects/my-awesome-project/next.config.js". Generating map from "./pages"
info  - Launching 9 workers
info  - Copying "public" directory
info  - Exporting (3/3)
Export successful. Files written to /Users/usr/projects/my-awesome-project/out
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Yeah no i18n support is not compatible with next export error anymore!!!

Congratulations! Now you can "deploy" the content of your out directory to any static web server.

πŸ§‘β€πŸ’» The complete code can be found here.

The voluntary part

translation workflow

Connect to an awesome translation management system and manage your translations outside of your code.

Let's synchronize the translation files with locize.
This can be done on-demand or on the CI-Server or before deploying the app.

What to do to reach this step:

  1. in locize: signup at https://locize.app/register and login
  2. in locize: create a new project
  3. in locize: add all your additional languages (this can also be done via API)
  4. install the locize-cli (npm i locize-cli)

Use the locize-cli

Use the locize sync command to synchronize your local repository (public/locales) with what is published on locize.

Alternatively, you can also use the locize download command to always download the published locize translations to your local repository (public/locales) before bundling your app.

πŸŽ‰πŸ₯³ Congratulations 🎊🎁

I hope you’ve learned a few new things about static site generation (SSG), Next.js, next-i18next, i18next and modern localization workflows.

So if you want to take your i18n topic to the next level, it's worth to try the localization management platform - locize.

The founders of locize are also the creators of i18next. So with using locize you directly support the future of i18next.

πŸ‘


Looking for an optimized Next.js translations setup?

next-i18next
Here you'll find a blog post on how to best use next-i18next with client side translation download and SEO optimization.

Top comments (39)

Collapse
 
kutsan profile image
Kutsan Kaplan

I implemented this to one of my own projects written in TypeScript, there is is some boilerplate you need to write but it works, even with dynamic routes, sitemap etc. Sure there is some code to adapt to your project but I think this is the way to go right now for next export. Only thing that I don't like this to have to create a second file per page, but I understand why this necessary and can't be avoided. Thanks again.

I think you should also add appWithTranslation github.com/adrai/next-language-det... section to initialize i18next, otherwise you're getting i18next is not initialized error.

Collapse
 
adrai profile image
Adriano Raiano

That should already be covered with the default: github.com/isaachinman/next-i18nex...

Collapse
 
raibtoffoletto profile image
RaΓ­ B. Toffoletto

Thanks a lot for this. You are a life saviour πŸŽ‰

Collapse
 
adrai profile image
Adriano Raiano

You’re welcome…
If you want you can share this to the word πŸ˜‰

Collapse
 
sidak profile image
gursidak_singh

I need to create dynamic routes so created something like this in pages folder
pages/[locale]/gallery/[filter].tsx
In filter.tsx, I am catching the value of query.filter using useRouter hook. So after catching value of query i need to render some data from /en/common.json so i am trying to fetch it like
const data = t(gallery.metadata.${query.filter})
As in first render query.filter returns undefined so it gives error if i reload or directly loads on /gallery/rooms or /gallery/services page , but it works fine if i simply navigate to these routes using some next Link component.

II tried many solutions , but got some issue in all the solutions i tried to avoid it from accessing t('gallery.metadata.undefined')..

kindly help me in this, thanks in advance

Collapse
 
sidak profile image
gursidak_singh

however it works fine if i am fetching data from some external url/source based upon value from query.filter

Collapse
 
adrai profile image
Adriano Raiano

you may ask on stackoverflow with a more complete example

Collapse
 
martinkr profile image
martin krause • Edited on

Interesting approach. I wrote about my experience with next export an i18n a few months back: next.js: i18n with static sites and created this easy to integrate npm-package: next-export-i18n.

As far as is see we took a different route for something similar. Great article!

Cheers!

Collapse
 
adrai profile image
Adriano Raiano

interesting… did not know it…

I wanted to keep the i18next compatibility…

Collapse
 
romanakhatun profile image
Romana Khatun

Wow, this is great! Thanks a million!

Collapse
 
coeneivan profile image
Ivan Coene

THANK YOU!!!!!
I've been searching for a solution for quite a while now!
Great idea!

Just added this snippet to my _app.js to make it even nicer instead of step 8

useEffect(() => {
     if (router.query.locale !== undefined ) {
       const qLng = typeof router.query.locale == 'string' ? router.query.locale : router.query.locale[0] 
       if (!i18nConfig.i18n.locales.includes(qLng)) {
          router.replace(`${language}/${qLng}`)
        }
      }
  }, [router.query.locale]);
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode
Collapse
 
karrtopelka profile image
Max Plotitsyn

I am writing project with typescript, and cannot use type "any".
I want to ask you about getStatic file.
Can you please tell the type of ctx?
And also ns by default is array of strings, but in makeStaticProps you assign to ns an empty object, should I change empty object to an empty array?

Collapse
 
adrai profile image
Adriano Raiano

this is JavaScript, not TypeScript…
ns can be a string or an array of strings
ctx is coming from Next.js

Collapse
 
karrtopelka profile image
Max Plotitsyn

Made everything like in a tutorial, but now, when I try to run in development mode (also for build) I got this error:
error - ./node_modules/next-i18next/dist/commonjs/serverSideTranslations.js:78:0
Module not found: Can't resolve 'fs'
Can you help please how to resolve this issue

Collapse
 
adrai profile image
Adriano Raiano

This seems to work: github.com/adrai/next-language-det...

provide a reproducible example and open a github issue

Collapse
 
davi_dev profile image
Davi

hey can you share some demo code of this setup, i also want to setup this in Ts
Thanks in advance

Collapse
 
karrtopelka profile image
Max Plotitsyn

I switched to next-translate, because it's easier, you just keep small json config file and locales folder and that's it, nothing more

Collapse
 
yrobot profile image
Yrobot

Hi guys. I have just published a package for i18n next.js project SSG export, which called i18next-ssg.

With i18next-ssg, you could handle the i18n logic for next.js SSG easily.

Here is an example, if you have the pages defined like this:

Image description

After you run yarn build, the output files under the build folder will look like this:

Image description

/ will redirect to /[locale],/arya will redirect to /[locale]/arya, the locale value will be detected automaticaly.

This is the demo for this package: codesandbox.io/s/i18next-ssg-ozrpwx
This is the package github repo: github.com/Yrobot/i18next-ssg

Collapse
 
sidak profile image
gursidak_singh

How can i define dynamic routes, it gives error Id is not defined and also getStaticPaths is already occupied, please help on this urgently

Collapse
 
adrai profile image
Adriano Raiano
Collapse
 
sjiirfan profile image
Mohammed Irfan

Hi, facing problem for [locale]/products/[productid].js
Here the productid will always be many, can be thousands, for that situation how can I handle it. Please share your knowledge on this, its urgent.

As with static path I had to pass a , but this situation I don't know which productid will be there.
Something like this:
params: {
locale: lng,
productid: product._id
}

Thread Thread
 
adrai profile image
Adriano Raiano

If you don’t know all information on build time, then SSG is probably not suitable for you.

Thread Thread
 
sjiirfan profile image
Mohammed Irfan

Is there no way on it.

Collapse
 
magom001 profile image
Arkady Magomedov

I use strapi with nextjs. I simply run LOCALE=xxx yarn build && yarn export -o out/xxx for each locale that I need to support.

For i18n enabled routing an nginx proxy can be used together with custom cookies and/or browser language settings

Collapse
 
ted_dev profile image
ted_dev

Awesome! May I ask how can I use getStaticProps() to fetch data? Because it has been occupied in each pages. Thanks so much!

Collapse
 
adrai profile image
Adriano Raiano

yes, just define your normal getStaticProps function and call github.com/adrai/next-language-det...

Collapse
 
sarkis1997 profile image
sarkis1997 • Edited on

Do you have an example of this? Currently I have underneath code, but I can't figure out how to use getStaticProps() to fetch data in addition to the makeStatisProps function.

import { getStaticPaths, makeStaticProps } from "../../lib/get-static";
export { getStaticPaths };

export async function getStaticProps() {
const { data: headerFooterData } = await axios.get(HEADER_FOOTER_ENDPOINT);

makeStaticProps();
return {
props: {
headerFooter: headerFooterData?.data ?? {},
},
revalidate: 1,
};
}

Thread Thread
 
adrai profile image
Adriano Raiano
Thread Thread
 
sarkis1997 profile image
sarkis1997

Thank you! Still I get the following errors after following this steps:

Error occurred prerendering page "/it/cart". Read more: nextjs.org/docs/messages/prerender...
AxiosError: Request failed with status code 508
at settle (file:///Users/Β±Β±Β±Β±/Desktop/granddeals-react-frontend/node_modules/axios/lib/core/settle.js:19:12)
at Unzip.handleStreamEnd (file:///Users/Β±Β±Β±Β±/Desktop/granddeals-react-frontend/node_modules/axios/lib/adapters/http.js:505:11)
at Unzip.emit (events.js:412:35)
at endReadableNT (internal/streams/readable.js:1317:12)
at processTicksAndRejections (internal/process/task_queues.js:82:21)

info - Generating static pages (29/29)

Build error occurred
Error: Export encountered errors on following paths:
/[locale]/cart: /de/cart
/[locale]/cart: /es/cart
/[locale]/cart: /fr/cart
/[locale]/cart: /it/cart
/[locale]/cart: /pl/cart
/[locale]/cart: /ru/cart
/[locale]/checkout: /en/checkout
/[locale]/checkout: /es/checkout
/[locale]/checkout: /fr/checkout
/[locale]/checkout: /nl/checkout
/[locale]/checkout: /pl/checkout
/[locale]/checkout: /ru/checkout
/[locale]: /de
/[locale]: /fr

Thread Thread
 
adrai profile image
Adriano Raiano

Seems your server returns a 508 error πŸ€·β€β™‚οΈ

Collapse
 
ted_dev profile image
ted_dev

Thanks so much!!

Collapse
 
numito profile image
Numa • Edited on

Hello,
The only issue with this solution is that next router doesn't take into account the locale, so I had to override it as follow to add the locale when calling "push":

import {useRouter as _useRouter} from "next/router";
import i18nConfig from '../../next-i18next.config';
import {UrlObject} from "url";
declare type Url = UrlObject | string;
interface TransitionOptions {
  shallow?: boolean;
  locale?: string | false;
  scroll?: boolean;
}

export const useRouter = () => {
  const router = _useRouter();
  const locale = router.query.locale as string || '';
  if (!router.locale && locale)
    router.locale = locale;
  if (!router.defaultLocale && i18nConfig.i18n.defaultLocale)
    router.defaultLocale = i18nConfig.i18n.defaultLocale;
  if (!router.locales && i18nConfig.i18n.locales)
    router.locales = i18nConfig.i18n.locales;
  const oldPush = router.push;
  //we override the push method to add the current locale
  router.push = (url: Url, as?: Url, options?: TransitionOptions): Promise<boolean> => {
      if (typeof url == "string" && !url.startsWith(`/${locale}`))
        url = `/${locale}${url}`;
      else if (typeof url === 'object' && url.pathname && !url.pathname.startsWith(`/${locale}`))
        url.pathname = `/${locale}${url.pathname}`;
    return oldPush.apply(this, [url, as, options]);
  }
  return router;
}
Enter fullscreen mode Exit fullscreen mode

Anyone came with a better solution ? It seems a bit of a hack!

Collapse
 
davi_dev profile image
Davi • Edited on

Installed /examples/basic

TypeError: Cannot set properties of undefined (setting 'reactRoot')
Getting this error on running npm run dev or build after cloning and installing npm packages
please help

Collapse
 
kutsan profile image
Kutsan Kaplan

Thanks a lot! But is there a way to keep current selected language something like in localStorage so that users don't have to select locale every time they visit my website?

Collapse
 
adrai profile image
Adriano Raiano

yes, by calling languageDetector.cache(locale) like in point 12

Collapse
 
kutsan profile image
Kutsan Kaplan

I'm sorry, I must have missed that part. Thanks again!

Collapse
 
maurciobuffa profile image
maurciobuffa

Thanks for this article!!!

Do you happen to know if it's possible to redirect with query params?

Collapse
 
adrai profile image
Adriano Raiano

what do you exactly mean? you should be able to access the query params in the router: router.query

5 Websites To Learn Frontend Web Development Faster πŸ’¨

>> Check out this classic DEV post <<