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DOM performance case study

areknawo profile image Arek Nawo Updated on ・9 min read

This post is taken from my blog, so be sure to check it out for more up-to-date content πŸ˜‰

I have an interesting question for you - when have you last used truly pure DOM API and methods to build a real project? Yeah, can't remember these times either. πŸ˜‚ But did they even existed at all? Because, you know, you almost always use HTML with the help of DOM API to do some more interactive stuff, but you definitely don't use it as a standalone way of creating your UI. But, with the modern UI frameworks and libraries, like React, Vue or Angular times have changed and so the way of creating UIs too. So, unless you're using some framework that compiles your code to HTML/CSS/JS trio, you're most likely to base your app on some tool that bases on DOM API. πŸ˜‰ With that said, the level of control that these tools provide us with is incredible. It truly helps to create better, prettier and faster experiences. Yeah, speed - that's what we'll be looking into today.

As you might know or heard somewhere, any interaction with DOM is costly. These calls can give you a big performance hit when you're not using it correctly. Even if we're talking about fractions of milliseconds, it's still important. If your UI cannot work butter-smoothly, locked at 60 FPS (+1/-1) then something is not right. But it shouldn't be the case with your Vue/React/Angular app unless of course, you have done something truly bad or performed demanding tasks (BTC mining, WebGL, AI, and other number-crunching stuff 😁). That's because of how well optimized these tools are. So, let's do a case-study here and check some DOM optimization techniques, including that these libraries use, to know how it's done! Enjoy! πŸ‘

red and blue smoke bombs


Starting with the most notorious one, here comes the reflow - your worst enemy and best friend at once. Reflow (also called layout trashing πŸ—‘) is the name for all the processes that take place in your browser when you interact with DOM, CSS and all those kind of stuff. It means re-renders and re-calculations of your website's layout (element's positions and size). All that is nice - reflows handle all these complexities behind the scenes. Let's move on to the worse part then - reflow is a user-blocking operation! That means if there's too much work to do when performing reflow, your UI can drop its frame rate, freeze or - in the worst scenario - even crush. These are all experiences that you probably don't want your users to have. With that said, it's important to deal with DOM and thus resulting in reflows with special care.

What exactly triggers the reflow then? There is a great list in form of GitHub gist if you would like to know more. But here let's take a quick look at the most important of 'em all:

  • getComputedStyle() - extremely useful and extremely costly;
  • box metrics and scrolling - stuff like clientHeight, scrollTop;
  • window properties - clientHeight, scrollY;
  • events' position data & SVG

So these are just the basic, more generic ones. Of course, some tasks like accessing a property have less performance overhead (reflow timing) than some more advanced methods like getComputedStyle().


So, reflows aren't really good. What can we do to minimize them or at least optimize them to gain performance boost? πŸš€ Well, quite a lot actually. First, the best and most popular technique is known as batching. What it basically means is that you should group your DOM read and write operations and commit them separately whenever possible. This process allows the browser to optimize your calls under-the-hood and results in overall improvement in performance.

// This will always be faster...

const width = element.clientWidth + 10;
const width2 = element.clientWidth + 20;

element.style.width = width + 'px';
element.style.width = width2 + 'px';

// ...than this.

const width = element.clientWidth + 10;
element.style.width = width + 'px';
const width2 = element.clientWidth + 10;
element.style.width = width2 + 'px';

Apart from that, you should also batch and reduce any other kind of DOM interactions. For example, let's take the standard way of adding a new element to your DOM tree. When you're adding just one or two it might not be worth the extra trouble. But when we're talking about tens or hundreds of elements, then it's really important to commit such call properly. What do I mean by it? Well, to just batch all of these calls into one, most likely with the help of DocumentFragment.

// Unoptimized
for(let i = 0; i < 100; i++){
    const element = document.createElement('div');

// Optimized
const fragment = document.createDocumentFragment();
for(let i = 0; i < 100; i++){
    const element = document.createElement('div');

Such a simple change can lead to a big difference. I think, it goes without saying that you should apply the same practice/idea whenever and wherever you can. Besides that, what can also prove to be useful are your browser's dev tools. You can use its rendering timeline to see all relevant data about how your DOM was rendered. Of course, it's only useful when you then put proper optimizations in place.


Now, let's talk about more general stuff. Most obvious advice will be just to keep things simple. But what does it mean in depth?

  • Reduce DOM depth - Unnecessary complexity just makes things slower. Also, in many cases, when you update the parent node, the children may need to be updated to thus resulting in the whole structure formed under the specified node needed to be processed. The update might also invoke change all the way up the DOM tree. In short, it makes the reflow take more time.
  • Optimize CSS - Naturally, the CSS rules that are not used aren't really needed at all. You should remove any of those. Next, complex CSS selectors can also cause a problem. But, if you have already followed the previous rule, these may prove to be useless, leaving no need for them in your code whatsoever. Inlining the styles that you change often is a good practice too. Obviously, in contrast, styles that are used by a number of elements should be made separately as a CSS rule.
  • Animations - These can hit it pretty hard. You should limit your animations whenever possible only to transform and opacity properties. Also, it's always better to include them out-of-the-flow, meaning to set the position to either absolute or fixed. This ensures that your animations won't interfere with the rest of UI, causing even slower reflows. Besides that, let your browser know that specified properties are going to change by utilizing the will-change property. And lastly, you might want to animate using CSS animations or Web Animations API. This way all your animations are executed in special, separate "compositor thread" thus making them non-blocking.

These tips can improve your performance drastically! So, just use them anytime you can.

low angle photo of glass buildings

From different perspective

Now that we know that reflows that handle the view updates for us are the root of all evil 😈, let's sum it up and take a look at all previous info from a bit different perspective.

Everything that happens on your screen should retain that hyped 60 FPS that everyone craves. It means that the screen should refresh 60 times per second (or more for devices with higher refresh rates). And what it means even more specifically is that everything that happens on this one, single frame (JS, reflows and etc.) should happen under 10 ms (in fact you have around 16 ms but browser uses this 6 ms for internal housekeeping stuff). With that said, when the task is too big and it takes too long (more than 10 ms) the frame rate drops and lags happen.

Let's take a look at this diagram to see what exactly happens on this single frame:


I think JavaScript part needs no further explaining other than that it is what usually triggers the visual changes (it can also be CSS animations, Web Animation API and etc.).

Style marks the time when style calculations take place. Here all your CSS rules are processed and applied (CSS selectors stuff).

Layout and paint steps are the most important for us here because these can be easily optimized. Layout step is the reflows origin place. Here, after your styles have been already applied in the previous step, the properties that may require geometry recalculation are being handled. This includes width, height, left, top and etc. The change of these properties may require to update other elements, including the ones down and top the DOM tree.

What you can do to optimize this step is to either manage changes to these properties wisely or have a good DOM hierarchy that doesn't require too many changes on one element update. Of course, you can also change the position property. An element that is outside of normal flow won't trigger a change in other elements. When no layout property is changed, the browser omits this step.

After that comes the paint step. Here properties that don't interfere with layout are handled. These include background, color, shadow and alike. Generally pure visuals. Repaints aren't as costly as layout changes and (just like before) are omitted when not needed.

Composite is a final, always required step. Here all previously created layers are glued together to for the final result. This will be later painted pixel by pixel to your screen.

I think these insides into how all this happens can really inspire you to further dig into how you can optimize your code. In addition, if you think that your application is fast enough without any optimization, just think what you could do with this extra computing power - more visuals, better animations - options are practically endless! 🌟

A word on virtual DOM

After all these tricks and tips, I think you can now easily understand what's so magical behind this whole virtual DOM thing that has been lately so popular mainly to big influence that React and Vue have. It allows you to keep your visual nodes' data in a form of JS native structures, thus not requiring to access DOM (with reflows and stuff as a result)!

So, how does it work in a nutshell? Well, you first interact with the VDOM and apply your changes to it. Then (I might have skipped some more detailed things, but it's that much important 😁) comes the reconciliation step. Here the new VDOM tree is compared with the old one to differentiate the changes. These are later applied to real DOM.

Now, the reconciliation step is where the discussion like React vs Vue (performance-wise) really has its origins. This comparison is practically the most important and crucial idea behind what's known to many as virtual DOM. This is the place where React 16 (React Fibre) has done awesome work on optimizations. But Vue is equally impressive, with its virtual DOM implementation being able to selectively choose which nodes are needed to be updated (instead of how React does it - by updating the whole tree down). Anyway, these two has done a really good job on improving the performance and development experience of great many JS programmers, so big thumbs up for that! πŸ‘

Bottom line

I hope that this article gave you some insides into how you can improve the performance of your JS/React/Vue/DOM-based app. πŸ˜€ So, there's nothing more to say than go and make the web faster, I guess. πŸ˜„ As always, if you liked this article consider checking out and sharing my personal blog. Also, follow me on Twitter and on my Facebook page for more interesting content. πŸš€


In case you'd like to learn more about the topic discussed in the article, from here on every post that can have it, will have it. πŸ˜‰ Everything for better reader experience! ✌

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areknawo profile

Arek Nawo


Hobbyist. Web Developer. πŸ‘¨β€πŸ’» Freelancer. Blogger. Making awesome websites. 😍


markdown guide

Great post Areknawo! There's a lot to learn about browser performance, thanks for the info! :-)

You've probably already read them but this series about how they made Firefox fast is very interesting:


I've indeed read some posts from the Mozilla Hacks blog. They're very insightful, well-written and informative! But I haven't stumbled on these ones yet, so thanks for links too!


I really love Lin Clark's style of writing (and cartoons) :D


Your age? Read in your bio, is that true?

Yeah... what's the problem?

Why u'r acting rude?
I've no problem, in fact, I am amazed that you have this much of knowledge. At your age, I even don't know about writing a function. :Appreciates:

Thanks. I'm just a bit conservative about the age stuff... Some people might have different opinions on this topic.


What do u think about stuff like angular ivy, lit-html and svelte having amazing performance without using the vdom?

Ps: bice post


Skipping the virtual DOM indeed gives you a performance boost. But there are complex cases in which it needs to be really well executed in order to do so. Aside from that, Svelte is on the rise, and I really like the lit-html template string approach. I somewhat even implemented it in my own framework. πŸ‘

View(() => {
    return Node(({ classes, state, styles, on }) => {
        state({ color: "red" }, true)
        on("created", () => {
            setTimeout(() => {
                state.set("color", "green");
            }, 1000);

        return `<h4 ${styles({
            color: state.get("color")
        ])}>Hello World!</h4>`;

Maybe you'd want to create a function which does nothing called html to allow the lit-html vscode extensions to highlight the html

I considered that, but by doing this I lose access to the arguments, (like style and classes), which can be used in pretty interesting ways.


hey great article, good refresher on dom things.