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Brian Barbour
Brian Barbour

Posted on • Updated on

You Probably Don't Need A Front End Framework

Let me preface this with saying one important thing.

You should learn a popular Front End Libraries/Frameworks if you want to do Front End development professionally. Build things with them. Understand component based architecture. Practice, practice, practice! Build examples and plenty of little apps to showcase on your portfolio.

When you're starting on a serious personal project, use what you learned about frameworks to think about whether or not you need one. It may seem like it, at first. But, they are a bit like using a fire hose to water your plants.

fire hose

I recently started my own personal project, building a mini forum/message board app. (I've always loved message boards and wanted to make my own for years, so it been fun to me to make one, plus the learning experience doesn't hurt.) At first I tried to figure out a way to jam Next.js into my project for the view portion.

I really like the framework after playing around with it. It's sleek and does Server Side Rendering of React with little effort or boilerplate.

My initial goal was weave in authentication and hook my own database up to it. Good thing Zeit has plenty of examples to show you how. Through said examples I determined that I would have to create a separate Express server that runs along side Next or make endpoints with Next's new API routes.

No big deal, right?

Well, that's a lot of engineering for something simple and experimental like my little message board. In the end, I decided to reflect on my project deeper and determine what the minimum viable product would look like. Worse case scenario, I could bring Next in later if I really needed what it offered.

The lightbulb went off.

I realized that Express.js, a server-side Framework, already has the tools. HTML, CSS, and plain client-side Javascript too have more than enough power to take care of any client-side needs that would arise.

You see even with all the tools in my belt at my disposal, I still kept trying to pick up a tool that I didn't need to solve a problem I didn't have.

After that epiphany, I begun to use app.render in Express.js and brought in Handlebars for templating out my pages. Not only did it simplify my app and get me moving, it also helped me appreciate the raw power in server rendering pages.

It baffles me that a lot of the learning materials I relied on shoved me so hard in the direction of Single Page Apps, rather than something tried and true, and better yet--simple.

I regret that I didn't appreciate server rendering or use it earlier along my path. There is so much power in simply handling all your logic on the server and then spitting out a page. Plus, if I need some interactivity on the front-end--I can just link to a script on my page and manipulate the DOM with plain Javascript.

The downside is that you get a white screen between pages while the server loads the next route. If you can consider that a downside. I'm not so sure it is one, as that's kind of an expected behavior for websites and browsers.

Changing trajectory with this project also got me thinking about some of my previous ones. Many of those could have been done with simple static pages. Half of them didn't even need a Node.js server. I'm glad I used React, Gatsby, so on and so forth, but I never actually had any justification for them.

We can do a lot with the base fundamental tools that we have. Client-side Frameworks exist to abstract the harder parts of working with the DOM away. I think the main reason being as an app grows, so does its complexity. It gets frustrating to handle all the interactions, coding event listeners and such out by hand.

But, I don't know if my message board app will ever reach that point.

I've decided for personal projects at least, to let them grow towards needing a framework, rather than imposing one upon them at the beginning. I can easily convert Express endpoints ones that return JSON and then build views that use something more than templating. I think that's the biggest take away here. You probably don't need a Front End framework, especially while your app is still simple.

What do you guys think?

Also, if you haven't done it yet--fire up a Express.js server and practice server rendering your pages/views. I am sure you'll see what I mean, if you remain unconvinced. There are plenty of tutorials out there on how to do it. This one by Brad Traversy is one of my favorites. It uses EJS instead of Handlebars (they do basically the same thing with different syntax.)

Discussion (90)

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andrewtrefethen profile image
AndrewTrefethen

To throw my two cents into here. I think that many projects that use one of the FE javascript frameworks are putting a lot of work on themselves that is not necessary. Specifically, the fact that "Everything is a component" adds some incidental complexity since you then build the component to deal with cases your app will never experience, not to mention that you build an entire component for an item that never changes across your app (some navbars) for example. You're maintaining bindings for data that may never change. And I know that you can bake components that you don't need to change, but that is the default and free on SSR. Very few applications actually change enough things for the equation to balance. The only thing that is tipping the scale are SPA which i believe are actually just proposing a problem to require the FE solution.

leastbad profile image
leastbad • Edited on

First of all, jQuery is an incredibly powerful tool. Like anything else, if you use it improperly you will end up with a mess. The notion that jQuery is somehow inherently bad because it was popular before you started your coding bootcamp is not a good sign for the rest of this.

Nobody is suggesting that you shouldn't use components or that Stimulus is the right call for every scenario. Stimulus doesn't make sense for building a text editor; if you read how it is designed, it's not something you'd do with any pre-existing framework.

github.com/basecamp/trix

I don't use GitLab, but GitHub is written in Rails as well. The funny thing is that Rails sucks so bad, projects like Laravel essentially exist to port over all of the features they came up with.

The thing I have to keep reminding myself is that you said it yourself - you really are literally just a young front-end developer that isn't particularly confident with back-end. You literally haven't been doing this long enough to have accrued any perspective on how maybe the thing that was super cool when you graduated and formed the default basis for everything you've worked on might not actually be more than a fad religion that people got excited about, like Scientology.

MVC and its many sub-variants are dominant outside of your bubble and not going anywhere. I've been working with React and React Native since January and every day I keep waiting for the lightbulb to come on that shines a light on why people are so keen on masochism. If you look at the HN thread for Rails 6, it's chalk-full of people talking about how nice it is to work with Rails after working with React. If you want to pretend like you've got it all figured out and the issue is closed, then I wish you the best of luck.

news.ycombinator.com/item?id=20717886

For what it's worth, and I am keeping track, the things that you've listed as what you can do with a CSR that are impossible with a SSR are:

1.

leastbad profile image
leastbad

Webpack and Babel can absolutely work their magic regardless of whether you're using HTML or a template language that compiles to HTML. A big part of my frustration is that you're conflating (or confusing) the two and it lowers the bar for the conversation.

There's absolutely nothing inherent to a compiled template that allows you to code faster, deliver "semi native" or get everyone using familiar tools. It's a false dichotomy.

Seriously: generate HTML, cache it, deliver it. Make use of Turbolinks and consider Stimulus for your structure needs.

And if you are going to advocate using a compiled template methodology, be responsible and paint a picture of the complexity you take on to support this approach.

If you haven't compared the user experience and development speed of a combination like Rails + caching + Turbolinks + Stimulus to literally any front-end system, you might be alarmed to find out that you're just wrong about both dimensions.

leastbad profile image
leastbad

Stimulus doesn't redraw the entire view. In fact, it doesn't draw. That's not what it's for. Check it out, you might actually learn something.

Give us some examples of things that you can do with React on Express that can't be done without a compiled template and a virtual DOM.

Keep in mind that I can drop in Stimulus-Reflex and have the same websockets-driven update loop that you get in something like Phoenix LiveView.

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Anton Nesterov

I 100% agree with the author. In fact, it is what I started with a year ago when I needed to develop a simple dashboard. And guess what? - I ended up with building my own small ssr/isomorphic stack... I could just use Next.JS or something similar. However, now I don't regret this decision, because when you building your own tools you know what approach would make you more productive. As a result my productivity increased at least by half after I built my own tools.

I suggest to add Turbolinks, it improves routing in SSR applications. For SPA-like experience there is WebWorker and CacheAPI. with them, it is possible to provide SPA user experience in SSR applications.

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bbarbour profile image
Brian Barbour Author

I really need to dive into WebWorkers tbh. Thanks for the tip.

leastbad profile image
leastbad

I'm not trying to provoke you. I'm calling your bluff because I know that you're wrong. I know that you're wrong because I've actually used every generation of tools since the public web started. After a while, you see patterns. The question of where logic should live is cyclical.

I admit that six months of React doesn't make me an expert, but I have experienced enough pain to be able to directly compare it to all of the different options available.

Anyhow, let us know when you've started on that list of things that only React can do.

leastbad profile image
leastbad

Dude - I never suggested that you don't need client-side code. That's not even a thing.

If that's what set you off, then I'm sorry for not being clear that we actually used to build real stuff before front-end frameworks were popular again. (Yes, before jQuery there was a first-wave of libraries competing for the same trophy. I'll bet that you've never had to suffer YUI, MooTools or Dojo, or remember when Google released their own library... Closure.)

Sharing elements is not really a serious feature now, is it? If you are committed to doing all of your state transformation on the client, you have to be able to move objects from one place to another. On the server, we just call functions and pass data structures around. We don't need to pass functions into props eight levels deep because we don't need to have an adversarial relationship between the different parts of our data model. It's that endless shuffling of concerns up to the parent that feels so wrong to me.

A really good analogy would be calling a meeting exclusively to schedule more meetings. There's an inherent design inefficiency that gets worse with complexity. Meanwhile, I can pass a collection into a partial and never spend a second of my day fretting about how some React component I pulled from npm is going to do a shit job of abstracting the browser's native functionality.

One thing Rails really gets right is that things are consistent and repeatable. We call it the principle of least surprise. It's what the client world is sorely missing.

Anyhow: I have 26 years of experience. That's perspective, wisdom or a demonic pact. I'm not claiming to be humble. My opinion is highly qualified.

andrewtrefethen profile image
AndrewTrefethen

I can see where you are coming from, but tree shaking isn't a silver bullet as not everything is easily shakable. And any given dependency can tie unnecessary code in. Also, I'm very weary of setups that require a significant amount of knowledge to get good results. One benefit of SSR is that the simple thing also has relatively good performance.

leastbad profile image
leastbad

Do you even lift, bro?

Looking forward to that big list.

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ratherbsurfing profile image
Chad Collins

Maybe the generic term rebuilding the wheel needs an antithesis. Like just because you want to build a car, you don't need to import an entire Tire Store. While it is unpopular to say "manipulate the dom" directly, its perfectly fine, and people do it and yes, almost all frameworks bring extra code to your project that you frankly do not need, nor ever use. There just aren't enough native pure Javascript programmers out there. And rendering Server side has been around so long, its a perfectly fine and secure paradigm to deliver a blog or message board. Of course you can use "Ajaxy" style lazy loading to bring in content as you need it without a page-rerender. Its cool you brought up Ember, I need to check that out in greater detail. Cheers!

andrewtrefethen profile image
AndrewTrefethen

The keyword in your argument is "Application". The niche of sites that really embody that definition is small. If you are dealing with a really demanding use case requiring a large number of changes to the page over the course of a single usage, and you have to keep track of your state while doing so, CSR is a viable option. My point is that the number of sites that actually need that is a minority.

And as a FED you might find FE apps easier to build, but not everyone is a FED. Some have to build both ends, and when that is the case, being able to simply template some html server side and send it down the wire is much easier than spending hours just configuring and tweaking your bundles, tree shaking settings, code splitting, SSR the inital view, etc. Not to mention that you then have to build the server side API for your application alongside the FE. If you are on a large team and need to be able to silo development between different groups of developers, then CSR apps can give you that extra decoupling distance. But that again is the minority.

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J.C.Ködel

A point that many does not take into account: old devices. I live in a 3rd world country where internet is a luxury (so is decent mobile devices). I made an HTML app with Ionic and most of my users could not use it (I have 1.4 million downloads, so, "most of my users" is a lot of users). Reason: Android WebView in ancient versions (Lollipop come with Chrome 37). Most of those frameworks start rendering something with Chrome 55 (Ionic is using all cutting edge techs, as CSS variables, ES6, etc., so, Chrome 64-ish is the minimum).

That said, one part of my app works fine (even in oldest Android 4.4 with Android WebView): the Flarum forum. They do not use any fancy frontend frameworks and Mithril (a view framework, as React or Vue).

So: if you want to be successfull for people who are not techies (as they will not update their phones - they don't even know that option exists sometimes), or if you pretend to be a hit on BRICS or poor contries, don't use fancy front-end frameworks ;-)

andrewtrefethen profile image
AndrewTrefethen

Most websites won't ever see the scale you are referring to. And many parts of SSR can be cdn hosted as well. Not to mention that in many applications, the companies behind it have been SSR the client side framework to get a faster first paint, you now have both downsides. I will say that PWA can get around this by locally caching the CSR. What I'm getting at is that the simple projects, and the new programmers don't get addressed in a lot of these discussions. If you trivially set up one of these CSR apps, you're in for a long uphill battle for performance. Not to mention that extra work has a real cost associated with it in terms of development time and investment.

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acomito profile image
acomito • Edited on

I feel that if you’re fluent in a frontend framework there isn’t any reason to write your personal projects in vanilla code. If I was still stumbling around react and I was more comfortable with regular express and html templates, I’d use that.

At the end of the day even if it’s true it’s just a small personal project 14 people will maybe see, why worry about the bundle size?

These “you don’t need a framework” posts never resonated with me.

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bbarbour profile image
Brian Barbour Author

I wasn't saying that you should write your own front end framework, just that you should think if you really need one to do the things you want to do.

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chrisrhymes profile image
C.S. Rhymes

I regret that I didn't appreciate server rendering or use it earlier along my path.

Server side rendering was all we could do back in the day 😂

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bbarbour profile image
Brian Barbour Author

I'm rather new, just learned all this stuff recently. So, it was all Front End framework related.

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iyedb profile image
iyedb • Edited on

This is a much a needed article. Many web sites these days have become unusably slow because of the SPA JAVASCRIPT madness. You need a core i7 and 16 GB of ram to run many of the popular web site smoothly.

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beggars profile image
Dwayne Charrington

I mostly always tend to reach for a front-end framework and my choice is Aurelia. The things that I get in a framework are invaluable to me and save a lot of time.

You can go vanilla, but in the end you end up just creating your own framework piecemeal by installing a trove of Node packages. You install a router, something for templating and a a few other libraries. I often start off with the intent of not using a framework, but the time saving of not having to reinvent the wheel are hard to argue against.

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bbarbour profile image
Brian Barbour Author

Right. I wouldn't write my own FE framework, rather I'd just refactor what I have to use one... if my project grows to need it. For now its just overhead and complexity that it doesn't need.

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beggars profile image
Dwayne Charrington

If you're building simple things that don't need many packages or functionality, that's absolutely the way to go. If you're building a LOB application or something that's laden with features, it's hard to argue the case against a framework if it can save you tens and hundreds of hours in work.

I do think people lean on existing frameworks and libraries a lot, but the concern for me is they're not bothering to learn basic JavaScript fundamentals or their perspective of what native browser API's can actually do versus what frameworks allow you to is skewed.

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Filip Defar

Server side rendering is the correct approach for most web applications, it's just that the SPA hype is extremely strong last few years. But, it seems to be dying down lately.

Check out turbolinks and Stimulus, they can help you build rich client-side experiences while still keeping majority of your logic in the back-end. I have a feeling you might like them.

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gravytrain profile image
Michael Beck • Edited on

The focus of this article is all over the board. You could write the same article about not needing a backend framework, or not needing any framework. Or I would argue nobody should be making a one user forum. If you are doing it just for fun, or to practice skills, then what you want to learn is the primary driver of your choice in framework, front end or backend, and renders the rest of your points moot.

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bbarbour profile image
Brian Barbour Author

I kind of regret the title, as this was more to share something I learned or discovered making my app--rather than to tell people what they should/shouldn't do. It was more about my thoughts/experience. That's why you got the impression that the focus is all over the place.

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welkie profile image
Matt Welke

I think it wasn't that you discovered you may not need a framework. You discovered that you didn't need a client rendering framework. Express is actually considered a framework. It's meant to help you create web apps. And it's only a recent development in the industry that we started to send only JSON from the server and have the client parse it and render something new on the page.

I'm glad you discovered Express HTML templating. :) It's quite simpler than doing SPAs, as you've noticed. It's my go to for quick prototypes. I only do SPAs if I'm sure I'll need some rich client functionality. And even then, sometimes I can get by with just adding some JS to the rendered page that allows the user to have that page change with some AJAX calls before they move on to a different page. And for that, I can use jQuery, or just vanilla JS if I don't think I need jQuery.

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bbarbour profile image
Brian Barbour Author

If this project becomes anything more than an experiment, I can easily my Express endpoints ones that return JSON and then build a front end. I think that's my biggest take away. My oohhh I gotta share this moment.

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quietobserving profile image
Andrei

"You probably don't need a FE framework" - pretty presumptuous title. In my experience I haven't met a single project that hasn't benefitted from or eventually needed a FE framework.
THere's a simple rule of software architecture that says when faced with a choice, go with the one that's easier to change. If you are absolutely sure that your project won't grow beyond the reach of SSR, by all means, it makes sense.
But otherwise, adopting a FE framework is the option easier to change because you can adopt it incrementally (with a few exceptions, frameworks are modular), you don't actually have to deal with extra code that you definitely don't need (unless you really choose poorly) and there are ways to mitigate boilerplate (where needed). Also, if you do want to ditch it down the road for some reason, you're mostly bound to copy/pasting your non-boilerplatish code to some js and integrate that as opposed to devising a strategy to replace your rendering.
Even if going framework-less, I wouldn't go with SSR since it's way too limiting. SSR made sense in ye olde days (15 years ago, maybe), when large systems would have clients running that may not be able to do much dynamic rendering involving average JS. But today a given desktop can easily exceed even above average AWS VM's and a simple phone holds more power that the low-tier cloud offerings.
You'd be hard pressed to find a compelling reason to not seek to offload FE work down to the client.
The overhead from using a framework exists, for sure but still makes more sense.

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ajinspiro profile image
Arun Kumar

So true. But I used angular for building my personal app (a nice click to copy interface for the bazillion credentials I use everyday). I did it because back then I was a newbie and wanted to learn "the cool kid's technology". No regrets though, because that's what taught me everything I know about javascript, ES6+, compiling UI from source code and such stuff today and this really makes me a cool kid in my team. I remember pushing my angular source code repo to Heroku and wondered why it always displayed "Your app crashed". The first time I saw plain HTML, JS, CSS files after running "ng build" I was like "hallelujah"

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andrewtrefethen profile image
AndrewTrefethen

The navbar is an example, their are plenty of times that you would stamp a template and then never change the data associated with it, at most later removing it from the DOM. In these instances, the data binding has extra memory consumption and parsing cost that are not warrented.

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jmetcher2 profile image
jmetcher2

Let me summarise.

I was following fashion trend du jour. Then I realised it was just fashion and maybe I should think for myself. When I did that, I liked the results because they suited my use case better.
What's the lesson here? Hint: it has nothing to do with framework choice, csr, SSR, or anything else mentioned in this comments thread.

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ahmid profile image
Ahmid-RA

Its the Trying and the truing that's the problem. Thats where all the casualties, sleepless nights and unnamed soldiers lay. Let's be honest...People use React because Facebook made it. That mess dont even load half the time. But....that blue F tho...must be good...smh. i teach hundreds of devs and 90% of their problems are with frameworks not even the app they want to make which can usually be done in the time they spend learning what render does.

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leastbad profile image
leastbad

Matt, Ember isn't an SSR. There is FastBoot, which provides SSR similar to some React solutions, but it's not the default stack.

As others have said, with proper caching you can serve up SSR apps that run just as quickly as SPAs. In fact, if you're rendering the same content multiple times, you're probably doing it wrong. Those apps have the advantage of offering the developers a 1:1 relationship between their markup and what is rendered, with none of the abstractions upon abstractions that CSR folks accept without question.

My personal position is that this cannot be an intellectually honest debate without considering the role of Turbolinks and libraries like it. Rails or Express + Turbolinks are simpler to build and load faster than an SPA because there's no client compilation.

There are reasons to use client libraries like React, but they are actually the exception. Rails + Stimulus + Turbolinks for the win.

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cam profile image
Cam Stuart

You have landed on exactly the same decision I have. SPA's are only required for very complex and rich user interfaces. In reality, most web apps are not that sophisticated.

Maybe a sprinkle of Ajax here and there is as far as we need to go.

My personal project is written in Go for the backend, generating html server side like I used to before all the SPA hype took off.

And for the odd Ajax request, I'm using something called intercooler.js

Development is productive as a result

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krivaten profile image
Kris Van Houten

Loved this article as it's something I've been feeling for a few years now. Often times using a Front End Framework is the equivalent of using a semi truck to get a kitten across the street, when we all know a simple toss will do (That's sarcasm for all you feline lovers). I love Vue and React, and am a long time Ember dev, but they've been largely unnecessary for most of the enterprise stuff I've done over the last few years. The server is much better suited for the vast majority of it.

Good luck in the oncoming flame war you have opened yourself up to.

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aminnairi profile image
Amin

Hi there, great article. That's really interesting to share your views and opinions about that subject. Personally, I already tried server rendering with EJS and yes I watched Brad's tutorial too back then. He is so good at teaching stuff btw! But I prefer to do everything on the client and leverage my server for APIs for instance. Most of the things that the popular Frameworks do are already possible to do in plain JavaScript without much pain. For instance, looking at Vue.js they even said that the VueRouter package is in the end a wrapper to the Navigation API native in the browser and if you know that API, you'll know how VueRouter works internally. Too bad people often rush into Frameworks without really understanding the underlying concepts.

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smchughinfo

I've been saying this for years. What you are saying is true but it's always been an unpopular truth. It might be less true if there weren't new frameworks to learn constantly but there are. I mean if you have the foresight to pick a winner like React then you're good for a while but if you pick wrong and have to relearn and your company uses some other framework then it just adds up to a dumb amount of time learning to do the same thing you could do yourself with just regular JavaScript.

Confession time, I didn't make a serious effort to learn any JavaScript frameworks for like a four year period. Instead I learned a ton of math. Well, that turned out to be an outstanding decision. No, I still don't know balls.js but ball.js is old now and no one uses it.

I'm learning react now and it's fine. I like components a lot but those too have been possible in regular JavaScript for a while. Well, at least with some shims.

Anyways, I applaud you for writing this article. It might not be popular but what's right isn't always popular.

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n8chz profile image
Lorraine Lee

I find intriguing your idea of letting projects grow toward needing a framework. I have a hard time imagining myself on such a path, but I should mention that the only framework I have tried to work with so far is Rails, and in the above article framework means front-end framework.

My first rails project was "duper," which was an attempt to implement a simple double-entry bookkeeping system as a Rails app. The reason I wanted to do this is because I had taken to using GnuCash for balancing my checkbook and the like. I love the precision, and I love the data model, but I hate the user interface. As someone with 20 yrs data entry experience (but shameless plug, gitlab.com/n8chz) I know a bad user interface when I see one, especially input interface. I thought to build a Rails app around GnuCash's data model (available as your choice of an XML file or a MySQL database) but all of the Rails tutorials were walkthroughs of crud apps from scratch, including building models ex nihilo. I could find no non-paywalled hints on how to build a Rails app over an existing data model. So I created my own model, incorporating sombunall features of GnuCash, which (if I may brag) a vastly superior user interface of my own devising.

But if GnuCash is overkill for balancing my checkbook (and it is), surely Ruby on Rails is massive overkill. I'm thinking maybe instead I should have written something in whatever language (they all have a MySQL library available it seems) that simply sends raw SQL statements to the GnuCash backend, but that would be so, what, 2004?

I also think brain wiring may be a factor. You say frameworks exist to abstract away the DOM. I remember reading somewhere (but alas I forgot where) that frameworks exist to abstract away SQL. Perhaps you're both right depending on whether it's front-end or back-end frameworks. But I think in SQL. I took a community college course titled "Relational Databases" where I was taught something called "relational algebra" (the data structures rubric that is the home of Boyce-Codd normal form) and I was like that's literally how I've been organizing information mentally for my whole life. I literally think in SQL (or the conceptual equivalent). So when I heard that someone invented frameworks as a way to abstract away relational algebra so developers can instead think in a (to me) clunky language called "object oriented," well, let's say I was blown away by a sense of how truly unfathomable neurodivergence can be.

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leastbad

In fairness to Rails, it is not intended to be used to build over existing data models. You can absolutely coax ActiveRecord to store PKs using non-standard conventions, but if you want to benefit from the ecosystem, you aren't likely to have much luck if you stray from the ORM patterns.

This is 100% by design. Rails is an abstraction from Basecamp. The creator of Rails has frequently stated that it hit critical mass the moment they used it to launch their own product. If anyone else finds it useful, this is a happy side-benefit.

For those of us who find it useful, a big part of the Rails value proposition is that we embrace the concept of convention over configuration. That is, there is a name, place and strategy for most things you want to do. You can absolutely step out of these patterns, but then you are violating what we call the principle of least surprise. The upside of this standardization of expectation is that an arbitrary Rails developer can join your project and intuitively know where everything is. They will be productive almost immediately.

By collectively deciding that bikeshedding is an over-rated time waste, we go from 'rails new' to serving authenticated pages that display data very quickly.

As a rule of thumb, if you cannot find documentation to support what you're trying to do, it's very likely that you're trying to make Rails do something against its own conventions.

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darrenhoy profile image
DarrenHoy • Edited on

This is a really interesting point, which I read as what the article was getting at - that frameworks always bring an overhead. Sometimes it's computing-related (memory, execution time) and others it's cognitive...having to understand the framework to do anything useful. The aim is that the gains from the framework exceed the overhead. In the case of ORMs (that is Object-Relational Mapping - translating SQL into objects) theres such an assumption (wrongly, often, and touted by OOP developers who don't understand SQL) that the gains are obvious and don't need to be explored. Writing stored procedures in a database and calling them directly is perfectly fine in lots of cases! Go for it, I say.

In the case of client-side frameworks though, abstracting the DOM is the reason to use one...any one. There really isn't any such thing as the DOM; there are multiple implementations that appear similar but vary according to the browser being used. In the case of web apps, the browser is a choice of the user, not the developer, and so the developer is encumbered with having to test functionality across all of the differing implementations. Client side frameworks do this for you. Knockout.js, for instance, has support for browsers going back to IE6 - try doing that with vanilla JS.

Server side rendering also has its challenges. Take a simple tick-box filter, for instance. The click in the checkbox doesnt trigger a post back, so you have to listen for it and force it through using JS (taking into account all of the differing browser subtleties), then figure out on the server what state your UI was in (HTTP being stateless, the server has no intrinsic "memory" of what this particular user saw beforehand so only has the data posted back from the client to go on).

In the case of client-side frameworks, therefore, the overhead is miniscule in comparison to the advantages, which perhaps explains why there are a) so many of them and b) why even in the smallest projects they are worthwhile.