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The Complete Python Basics Tutorial

devmehta profile image Dev Mehta ・4 min read

What is Python

Python is a general-purpose interpreted, interactive, object-oriented, and high-level programming language. It was created by Guido van Rossum during 1985- 1990. Like Perl, Python source code is also available under the GNU General Public License (GPL). This tutorial gives enough understanding on Python programming language.

Why to Learn Python

  • It supports functional and structured programming methods as well as OOP.
  • It can be used as a scripting language or can be compiled to byte-code for building large applications.
  • It provides very high-level dynamic data types and supports dynamic type checking.
  • It supports automatic garbage collection.
  • It can be easily integrated with C, C++, COM, ActiveX, CORBA, and Java.
  • Python is Interpreted − Python is processed at runtime by the interpreter. You do not need to compile your program before executing it. This is similar to PERL and PHP.
  • Python is Interactive − You can actually sit at a Python prompt and interact with the interpreter directly to write your programs.
  • Python is Object-Oriented − Python supports Object-Oriented style or technique of programming that encapsulates code within objects.
  • Python is a Beginner's Language − Python is a great language for the beginner-level programmers and supports the development of a wide range of applications from simple text processing to WWW browsers to games.

Hello World in Python

>>> print("Hello World!")
Hello World!
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Comments

Here is example of single line comment

>>> print("Hello World!") #this is single line comment
Hello World!
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Here is example of multiline comment

"""This is a
multiline
Comment. It is also called docstring"""
>>> print("Hello, World!")
 Hello World!
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In computer programming, a comment is a programmer-readable explanation or annotation in the source code of a computer program. They are added with the purpose of making the source code easier for humans to understand, and are generally ignored by compilers and interpreters.

Data Types in Python

x = 10 # print(type(x)) - Returns <class, 'int'>
# Here x is of type integer
x = 7.0 # print(type(x)) - Return <class, 'float'>
# Here x is of type float
x = "Hello"
# Here x is of type string
x = [0, 1, "hello", "world", 5.55]
# Here x is of type list
x = (0, 1, 2, 3)
# Here x is of type tuple
x = True
# Boolean
x = {"Hello", "World", "Dev"}
# Set in Python - We will learn this later
x = {"Name":"Dev", "Age":18, "Hobbies":["Code", "Music"]}
# Dictionary in Python - We will learn this later
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In programming, variables are names used to hold one or more values. Instead of repeating these values in multiple places in your code, the variable holds the results of a calculation,

Mutable and Immutable Data Types

  • Immutable Objects : These are of in-built types like int, float, bool, string, unicode, tuple. In simple words, an immutable object can’t be changed after it is created.
# Tuples are immutable in python 

tuple1 = (0, 1, 2, 3)  
tuple1[0] = 4
print(tuple1) # TypeError: 'tuple' object does not support item assignment
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  • Mutable Objects : These are of type list, dict, set . Custom classes are generally mutable.
# lists are mutable in python
color = ["red", "blue", "green"] 
print(color) 

color[0] = "pink"
color[-1] = "orange" # -1 suggests the last index of the list
print(color) 
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Python Operators

x = 10
# Sum of two variables
>>> print(x+2)
 12
# x-2 Subtraction of two variables
>>> print(x-2)
8
# Multiplication of two variables
>>> print(x*2)
 20
# Exponentiation of a variable
>>> print(x**2)
 100
# Remainder of a variable
>>> print(x%2)
 0
# Division of a variable
>>> print(x/float(2))
 5.0
# Floor Division of a variable
>>> print(x//2)
 5
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Python String Operations

>>> x = "awesome"
>>> print("Python is " + x) # Concatenation
 Python is awesome
>>> my_string = "iLovePython"
>>> print(my_string * 2)
 'iLovePythoniLovePython'
>>> print(my_string.upper()) # Convert to upper
 ILOVEPYTHON
>>> print(my_string.lower()) # Convert to lower
 ilovepython
>>> print(my_string.capitalize()) # Convert to Title Case
ILovePython
>>> 'P' in my_string # Check if a character is in string
True
>>> print(my_string.swapcase()) # Swap case of string's characters
 IlOVEpTHON
>>> my_string.find('i') # Returns index of given character
 0
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Lists in Python

>>> a = 'is'
>>> b = 'nice'
>>> my_list = ['my', 'list', a, b]
>>> print(my_list)
['my', 'list', 'is', 'nice']
>>> my_list2 = [[4,5,6,7], [3,4,5,6]]
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Sets in Python

>>>S = {"apple", "banana", "cherry"}
>>>print("banana" in S)
 True
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>>>S={1,1,2,2,2,3,3,3,4,4,4,4,5,6}
>>>print(S)
 {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
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Type Casting in Python

>>> x = int(1)
>>> print(x)
1
>>> y = int(2.8)
>>> print(y)
2
>>> z = int("3")
>>> print(z)
3
>>> print(str(05))
05
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Subset in Python

 # Subset
>>> my_list[1]
>>> my_list[-3]
 Slice
>>> my_list[1:3]
>>> my_list[1:]
>>> my_list[:3]
>>> my_list[:]
 # Subset Lists of Lists
>>> my_list2[1][0]
>>> my_list2[1][:2]
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>>> my_list + my_list
['my', 'list', 'is', 'nice', 'my', 'list', 'is', 'nice']
>>> my_list * 2
['my', 'list', 'is', 'nice', 'my', 'list', 'is', 'nice']
>>> my_list2 > 4
True
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List Operations

>>> my_list.index(a)
>>> my_list.count(a)
>>> my_list.append('!')
>>> my_list.remove('!')
>>> del(my_list[0:1])
>>> my_list.reverse()
>>> my_list.extend('!')
>>> my_list.pop(-1)
>>> my_list.insert(0,'!')
>>> my_list.sort()
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String Operations

>>> my_string[3]
>>> my_string[4:9]
>>> my_string.upper()
>>> my_string.lower()
>>> my_string.count('w')
>>> my_string.replace('e', 'i')
>>> my_string.strip()
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