# [freeCodeCamp] Basic JavaScript - Arrays

Prashant Sharma Originally published at gutsytechster.wordpress.com ・3 min read

Hey, y'all! I believe you all are doing excellent. This is in continuation of my previous post on strings and my JavaScript learning from freeCodeCamp. This time, I acquired some knowledge about arrays in JavaScript.

Let's begin without any delay!

# Defining JavaScript Arrays

When we want to store multiple related values sequentially, we make use of arrays. Instead of creating multiple variables for each value, we can assign all those values to an array.

An array in JavaScript in enclosed in [] i.e. square brackets with multiple values separated by comma(,). Let's see an example

var myArray = ["butter", "cheese", "milk"]


myArray is now an array.  It can contain values of different data types as well.

One can also nest array within other arrays. These are called multi-dimensional arrays. For e.g.

var myArray = [["John", 12], ["Maxwell", 18]]


Here you can see, we have defined multiple arrays within an array. This is what we refer to as nested arrays.

## Accessing array elements

We can access array elements in the same way we deal with string i.e. using indexes.

Indexes in JavaScript starts with 0

For e.g.

myArray[0]; // returns the first element of an array


## Modifying Array elements

Unlike strings, arrays are mutable i.e. you can change the values that exist within an array. For e.g.

var myArray = [5, 4. 7, 2];
myArray[2] = 3; // now the array looks like [5, 4, 3, 2]


## Accessing Nested Array elements

Accessing nested array elements can be achieved by using multiple brackets where first pair of brackets refers to the outermost array and subsequent pairs would access the subsequent nested arrays. Let's clear it with an example from freeCodeCamp itself.

var arr = [
[1,2,3],
[4,5,6],
[7,8,9],
[[10,11,12], 13, 14]
];
arr[3]; // equals [[10,11,12], 13, 14]
arr[3][0]; // equals [10,11,12]
arr[3][0][1]; // equals 11


## Manipulating Arrays

• ### push() method

JavaScript provides push() method to append a value to the end of an array. Let see its usage with a short example

var arr = [1, 2];
arr.push(3); // arr is now [1, 2, 3]
arr.push([4, 5]); // arr is now [1, 2, 3, [4, 5]]

• ### pop() method

pop() method works, just as opposed to push() i.e. it pops out or removes the last element of an array and returns that element. When I say, return an element, it means we can store the value returned by pop() in case we want.

Considering the above updated array as an example

arr.pop(); // Returns [4, 5], now array will be [1, 2, 3]
arr.pop(); // Returns 3 as it is the last element of updated array

• ### shift() method

We know that pop() removes the last element of an array. But what if we want the first element to be removed? Well, we can use shift() for that. It removes the first element and returns that.

var arr = [1, 2, 3];
arr.shift(); // Returns 1, now array will be [2, 3]

• ### unshift() method

unshift() works just like push() but instead of adding an element to the end, it adds an element to the starting of array.  Let's see an example

var arr = [2, 3];
arr.unshift(1); // arr is now [1, 2, 3]


# Conclusion

In this post, we got familiar with the fundamentals of arrays in JavaScript and how to manipulate and access them.

# References

I am keeping this post short for easy grasping of concepts. I will be talking about other JavaScript fundamentals in the next post. Till then, be curious and keep learning! :)

Posted on by:

### Prashant Sharma

Hey everyone! I am an open source enthusiast who loves to code. I am an aspiring Full stack developer. My weapon of code is Python and I enjoy creating REST APIs through Django REST Framework.