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Ajax requests with Laravel and Axios - 422 and 419 errors

irensaywhen profile image Irina Originally published at irensays.blog ・3 min read

Recently I started integrating a bootstrap template with the Laravel backend. And one thing that made me suffer a lot is the ajax backend validation.
Two errors often occur when you handle ajax requests with Laravel: 419 and 422.

The 419 code corresponds to the absence of the csrf token.

To tackle this issue, simply put this into your head:

<meta name="csrf-token" content="{{ csrf_token() }}" />
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And pass it with every request you make to Laravel. (For routes in web.php file)
If you use axios, you can either add it to your global axios config:

axios.defaults.headers = {
  'X-CSRF-TOKEN': $('meta[name="csrf-token"]').attr('content'),
},
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Or specify when you create an axios instance:

const instance = axios.create({
  headers: {
    'X-CSRF-TOKEN': $('meta[name="csrf-token"]').attr('content'),
  },
});
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What about 422 Unprocessable Entity?

This error occurs when your backend validation fails.
If you let Laravel refresh your page after POST request, you get errors in @errors directive and stuff, but usually, you want to handle it via ajax either because you care about user experience, or you use a frontend framework such as React or Vue. Or even both.

Here's how you can tackle the latter issue with axios.

Suppose you validate your form with an email and password input fields:

$request->validate([
  'email' => 'required|min:4',
  'password' => 'required|min:9'
]);
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As axios is a Promise-based library, you can catch errors in catch blocks. However, the problem is that even if you add a catch block after your then,
it won't help you to get the information about the error in your browser. When you try to log it, you probably get something like this instead of a neat json with errors:

422 log error

Fortunately, the solution is simple. When you access the error data, use error.response instead of error in your catch block, this way:

axios
  .post(endpoint, body, headers)
  .then(response => {
    // Do fancy stuff
  })
  .catch(error => {
    console.log(error.reponse); // logs an object to the console

    // Do something with error data
  });
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Here, error.response is an object with several useful properties such as status, statusText, and data. The latter is what we're looking for.
There you can find a message property with a general description, and errors object with detailed validation errors.
In the error.response.data.errors object, the keys are the input names, and the values are arrays(!) of strings that describe errors.

Now let's make a step further, and use some fancy features provided by axios.
Axios gives us an ability to add interceptors to our requests and responses. It allows us to modify requests and responses consistently and stick to the DRY principle.

If you're not familiar with the concept of interceptors, you can think of it as follows:

  • For requests they modify your request data before sending it to the server,
  • For responses they modify the response before all your then and catch blocks.

If you want to learn more, check out the axios docs on this topic.

Using interceptors, we can add an extra layer:

instance.interceptors.response.use(
  response => response,
  error => Promise.reject(error.response)
);
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Notice that we're forwarding both the normal response and the error.

And basically, that's it!

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