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Ishan Bagchi
Ishan Bagchi

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Git Cheatsheet (At a glance)

Contents:

What is Git?

Git is a free and open-source distributed version control system designed to handle everything from small to very large projects with speed and efficiency.

Git commands to Prepare Repository:

Initialise Repository

git init
Create a new empty repository in the current directory

Clone Repository

git clone <url> <dir>
Clone repository from the url named dir

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Git commands for Configuration:

Show Configurations

git config --list
Show current configurations

Set User Name

git config user.name <"name">
Set comitter username

Set User Email

git config user.email <"email">
Set commiter email address

Unix/Windows EOL Conversion

git config core.autocrlf true
Automatically convert between Unix and Windows end of the line on commit and checkout

EOL Conversion on Save Only

git config core.autocrlf input
Convert CRLF to LF only when committing, use original line ending on checkout

Change Editor

git config core.editor <editor>
Change text editor for writing commit message

Get Configuration

git config --get <config-name>
Get configuration value for the configuration name

Unset Configuration

git config --unset <config-name>
Unset configuration value for given configuration name

Configuration Scope

git config [--global | --system] <name> <value>
-- local or none for current repo, --global for user scope, --system for system scope

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Git commands to Work With Repository

Show Status

git status
Show working directory status, what files changed

Add File to Index

git add <file>
Add file or directory to the index for the next commit

Add Modified Files

git add -u
Update modified files to the index, it will not add new files

Add All Files

git add -A
Add all file or directory to the index for the next commit

Remove File from Index

git restore --staged <file>
Remove file from index, file on current directory unaffected

Discard Modification

git checkout -- <file>
Discard file modification, restore file from index

Delete File

git rm <file>
Delete file in the working directory and the index

Commit Changes

git commit -m ["commit message"]
Apply changes in the index with given commit message

Reverse Commit

git commit --amend
Replace the last commit of the current branch with the current index

Reset Author

git commit --amend --reset-author
Amend commit author and author-date to the committer

Change Author

git commit --amend --author="Author Name <email>"
Amend commit author with given author name and email, author date unchanged

Change Author Date

git commit --amend --date="2020-11-21T23:59:59"
Amend author date, use ISO 8601 format for convenience

Show Commit Log

git log [-n <number>]
Show commit logs, limit showing <number> commits

Show Short Log

git shortlog
Show shorter commit log

Show Log Summary

git shortlog -s
Show even shorter commit count summary

Diff Working Directory and Branch

git diff <branch-name>
Show diff between a branch and working directory

Show Diff between Branches

git diff <branch-1> <branch-2>
Show diff between two branches

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Git commands to Manage Branch

Detach Branch

git checkout --detach
Detach HEAD from current branch

Create New Branch

git checkout -b <branch-name>
Create new branch starting from current head

Switch Branch

git checkout <branch-name>
Change active branch

Checkout to Commit-Name

git checkout <commit-name>
Checkout to commit-name. Commit name can be branch name, commit hash, or relative HEAD reference

Checkout to Previous Commit

git checkout <HEAD~1>
Detach HEAD and switch to the previous commit. Where ~1 is the previous commit, ~2 is the previous 2 commits

Reset Current Head

git reset --hard <commit-name>
Move current branch HEAD to commit-name. Changes in index AND working directory are discarded. Potentially causing commits after a commit-name loss. USE WITH CAUTION

List Branches

git branch [--list]
List local branches

List Remote Tracking Branches

git branch -r
List remote-tracking branches

List Branches and Commit Messages

git branch -v
List branches, hash, and commit message

Sort Branches by Committer Date

git branch -v --sort=commiterdate
List branches, hash, and commit message sort by committer date

Sort Branches by Author Date

git branch -v --sort=authordate
List branches, hash and commit messages, sort by author-date

List All Branches

git branch -a
List both local and remote-tracking branches

Delete Branch

git branch -d <branch-name>
Delete already merged branch

Force Delete Branch

git branch -D <branch-name>
Delete branch, even unmerged. USE WITH CAUTION

Merge Branch

git merge <other-branch>
Merge other branches with current branch, fast-forward if possible

Merge Using Merge Commit

git merge --no-ff <other-branch>
Merge other branch, use merge commit

Interactive Branch Rebase

git rebase -i <other-branch>
Rebase current branch with other branch interactively

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Git commands to Manage Tags

List Tags

git tag
List available tags

Add Tags

git tag <tag-name>
Create new lightweight tag named <tag-name>

Delete Tags

git tag -d <tag-name>
Delete a tag named <tag-name>

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Git commands to Stash Working Directory

Stash Working Directory

git stash save
Save working directory state to new stash and clean up the working directory

List Stashes

git stash list
List stashes, stash@{0} is last stash

Restore Stash

git stash pop
Restore the last stash and apply it to the working directory

Remove Last Stash

git stash drop
Remove the last stash, saved state will be discarded

Clear Stashes

git stash clear
Remove all stashes, saved state will be discarded

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Git commands to Remote Repository

Show Remote Repositories

git remote -v
Show remote repositories name and URL for push fetch

Add Remote Repository

git remote add <remote-name> <url>
Add new remote repository with given remote name

Push branch to remote

git push <remote-name> <branch-name>
Push local branch to remote repository

Delete Remote Branch

git push --delete <remote-name> <branch-name>
Delete a branch from remote repository

Push Tag

git push <remote-name> <tag-name>
Push single local tag to remote repository

Push All Tags

git push --tags <remote-name>
Push all local tags to remote repository

Delete Remote Tag

git push --delete <remote-name> <tag-name>
Delete a tag from remote repository

Fetch from Remote

git fetch <remote-name>
Update remote-tracking branches. Remote tracking branches are NOT automatically merged with local branches. Use git branch -r to list-remote tracking branches

Pull from Remote

git pull <remote-name> <branch-name>
Retreve objects from remote-branches, and merge with current branch. USE WITH CAUTION

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Git commands for Repository Maintenance

Optimize Repository

git gc
Remove unnecessary files and references, optimize repository. It is a good idea to run gc periodically

Optimize Repository if Required

git gc --auto
Check and run gc only if required, otherwise exit without doing gc

Check Repository

git fsck
Check integrity of objects in the repository

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Conclusion

I mentioned some of the most used git commands. To learn more about git commands, visit the official git documentation here.

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