I was too busy to solve this challenge (but I tried for around 30min) and I did not even want to skip a day so, I had to look over other people's code.

The following code is taken from here. All credit goes to the author of this repository.

### Part 1

```
data,data1=get_data(day=16)
data = '''38006F45291200'''.splitlines()
data=data1[0].splitlines()
s = bin(int(data[0], 16))[2:]
n = len(s)
if n % 4 != 0:
s = '0' * (4 - n % 4) + s
n = len(s)
res = 0
c = 0
while c < n and '1' in s[c:]:
v = int(s[c: c + 3], 2)
res += v
c += 3
t = int(s[c: c + 3], 2)
c += 3
if t == 4:
num = ''
while s[c] == '1':
num += s[c + 1: c + 5]
c += 5
num += s[c + 1: c + 5]
c += 5
num = int(num, 2)
else:
l = int(s[c], 2)
c += 1
if l == 0:
num = int(s[c: c + 15], 2)
c += 15
else:
num = int(s[c: c + 11], 2)
c += 11
print(res)
```

### Part 2

```
from functools import reduce
funcDict = {
0: sum,
1: lambda a: reduce(lambda x, y: x * y, a),
2: min,
3: max,
5: lambda a: int(a[0] > a[1]),
6: lambda a: int(a[0] < a[1]),
7: lambda a: int(a[0] == a[1])
}
def evaluate(u):
if packets[u][1] == 4:
return packets[u][2]
res = []
for v in graph[u]:
res.append(evaluate(v))
return funcDict[packets[u][1]](res)
s = bin(int(data[0], 16))[2:]
for i in data[0]:
if i != '0':
break
s = '0' * 4 + s
n = len(s)
if n % 4 != 0:
s = '0' * (4 - n % 4) + s
n = len(s)
c = 0
packets = []
while c < n and '1' in s[c:]:
v = int(s[c: c + 3], 2)
c += 3
t = int(s[c: c + 3], 2)
c += 3
if t == 4:
num = ''
while s[c] == '1':
num += s[c + 1: c + 5]
c += 5
num += s[c + 1: c + 5]
c += 5
num = int(num, 2)
packets.append([v, t, num, c])
else:
l = int(s[c], 2)
c += 1
if l == 0:
num = int(s[c: c + 15], 2)
c += 15
else:
num = int(s[c: c + 11], 2)
c += 11
packets.append([v, t, l, num, c])
stack = []
graph = [[] for _ in range(len(packets))]
for i, u in enumerate(packets):
if len(stack) > 0:
p = stack[-1]
graph[p].append(i)
packets[p][3] -= 1
if packets[p][3] == 0:
stack.pop()
while len(stack) > 0:
p = stack[-1]
if packets[p][2] == 0 and packets[p][3] <= u[-1] - packets[p][-1]:
stack.pop()
else:
break
if u[1] != 4:
stack.append(i)
print(evaluate(0))
```

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