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Bash from scratch: learn enough bash to write your own scripts

ahmedmusallam profile image Ahmed Musallam ・9 min read

You should probably read @maxwell_dev's post: The Shell Introduction I Wish I Had before this

I find myself always needing to write shell scripts, because they can be very handy to automate tasks. Or, most importantly, because I forget the full commands to do something and I don't want to keep looking up the docs; either because the docs suck, or I'm just lazy :)

sometimes the commands I run are long or are just unfriendly. For example, this maven command:

mvn clean install -PautoInstallPackage,-codeQuality,-frontend -Dcrx.user=user1 -Dcrx.password=pass1

this is unintuitive and I wanted something simpler like:

./install -codeQuality -frontend --user user1 --password pass1

or shorter:

./install -c -f -u user1 -p pass1

at this point you might be thinking, how is this any better than the actual maven command? Well:

  1. I add documentation to my install script. And I print the documentation when I run install help
  2. My scripts print the full commands they execute.
  3. The command itself is part of the script, I can always look inside my script to find it.

Now that that's out of the way, lets learn some shell scripting! I'll be introducing you to a few things that'll get you writing scripts in no time!

The basics

Creating an executable file

In order to write a script and execute it, the script file must have execution permission. So let's create a file and give it execution permission

cd into a test directory and run

# create a new file called `script.sh`
touch script.sh
# add `execution` permission to the script to make it executable 
chmod +x script.sh

to run the script, while in the same directory:

./script

the ./ is necessary to tell your terminal to look in the current directory and not the default script directory.

now open that file in your favorite editor and let's get to learning the syntax.

The shebang!

TL;DR; add #!/usr/bin/env bash in the first line of your script file to mark that file as a bash executable.

you could use #!/usr/bin/env sh for portability, but we are working specifically with bash here.

printing stuff

to print things to the terminal, you can use echo or printf

echo is straightforward, it "echos" what you throw at it:

for example lets make that script.sh, from above, print "hello world"

#!/usr/bin/env bash
echo hello world

run it: ./script.sh and it will print: hello world.

printf is used for printing and "formatting" strings, hence the f at the end. a few simple examples can be found here
The largest use-case for me is printing a new line using the new line specifier \n.

example:

#!/usr/bin/env bash
printf "hello\nworld\n"

prints:

hello
world

Comments

Any line starting with # is a comment.

Declaring Variables

simple:

MY_VARIABLE="my value"

IMPORTANT: no space before or after =. Shell uses space as a delimiter for command arguments.

Parameter Expansion

see this and this to learn more.

referencing or substituting a variable:

for example:

#!/usr/bin/env bash

FAV_FRUIT="apples"
echo FAV_FRUIT

# prints `FAV_FRUIT`

while:

#!/usr/bin/env bash

FAV_FRUIT="apples"
echo $FAV_FRUIT

# prints `apples`

did you catch the difference? yes! FAV_FRUIT vs $FAV_FRUIT.

you can also use $ in a string:

#!/usr/bin/env bash

FAV_FRUIT="apples"
I_LIKE_BLANK="I like $FAV_FRUIT"
echo $I_LIKE_BLANK

# prints `I like apples`

Note: in all examples above, you can replace $ with ${variable name} for the same effect. so $FAV_FRUIT is the same as ${FAV_FRUIT}

Second note: notice how we used $FAV_FRUIT inside of a string? that's string templating for ya!

Using a default value

if a variable is empty or undefined, use a certain default value. This is best illustrated with an example:

#!/usr/bin/env bash

SHIRT_COLOR=""
COLOR="${SHIRT_COLOR:-red}"
echo $color

# prints: `red` since SHIRT_COLOR is empty

another example:

#!/usr/bin/env bash

DEFAULT_COLOR="red"
SHIRT_COLOR=""
MY_SHIRT_COLOR="My shirt color is ${SHIRT_COLOR:-$DEFAULT_COLOR}"
echo $MY_SHIRT_COLOR


# prints: `My shirt color is red`

Note: notice how we used ${SHIRT_COLOR:-$DEFAULT_COLOR} inside of a string? that's string templating for ya!

Passing variables to our script from terminal

To pass a variable, you can declare it before running the script.
This is especially helpful for passing environment variables. For example: the following script expects a FRUIT and will print I Like <FRUIT>. If FRUIT is undefined, use Apricot.

#!/usr/bin/env bash

DEFAULT_FRUIT="Apricot"
FRUIT=${FRUIT:-$DEFAULT_FRUIT}
echo "I Like $FRUIT"

now you declare FRUIT="Oranges" before running ./script:

FRUIT="Oranges" ./script

which prints: I Like Oranges

since the default is Apricot:

./script

prints: I Like Apricot

The More Advanced stuff

If Statements

The syntax

If then
if [[ <some test> ]]; then
  <commands>
fi
If else
if [[ <some test> ]]; then
  <commands>
else
  <other commands>
fi
If elseif else
if [[ <some test> ]]; then
  <commands>
elif [[ <some test> ]]; then
  <different commands>
else
  <other commands>
fi

Tests

in the above <some test> can be replaced with a test condition. You can see all available test conditions by typing man test in your terminal

Here are a few sample conditions that evaluate to true:

Test Description
[[2 -gt 1]] 2 is greater than 1. counterpart -lt: less,than.
[[2 -eq 2]] 2 equals 2
[[3 -ge 3]] 3 is greater than,or equal to 3. counterpart -le: less than or equal
[[-n "hello"]] Length of "hello" is greater than 0
[[-z ""]] Length of "" is 0
[["apple"= "apple"]] String,"apple" equals String "apple". (-eq compares numbers while = compares charachters)
[["apple"!= "apple1"]] String,"apple" does no equal String "apple1"

Examples using wildcards:
- [[ "watermelon" = *"melon"* ]]: String "watermelon" contains "melon"

Since this article is about bash and not shell in general, we use bash's double square brackets [[]]. Read this and this answer for more information.

this article is a good resource for further test conditions

To continue with the spirit of examples and fruits, here is an example:

#!/usr/bin/env bash

if [[ ${#FRUIT} -gt 4 ]]    # FRUIT character count is greater than 4
then
    echo "[$FRUIT]: yay! your fruit has more than 4 characters!"
elif [[ ${#FRUIT} -lt 4  ]] # FRUIT character count is less than 4
then
    echo "[$FRUIT]: Unbelievable... your fruit has less than 4 characters..."
else                      # FRUIT character count must be 4
    echo "A fruit with exactly 4 characters, how precious!"
fi

The following table shows the commands and the outputs for above script:

Command Output
FRUIT="Apple" ./script.sh [Apple]: yay! your fruit has more than 4 characters!
FRUIT="Fig" ./script.sh [Fig]: Unbelievable... your fruit has less than 4 characters...
FRUIT="Pear" ./script.sh A fruit with exactly 4 characters, how precious!

Note the parameter expansion ${#FRUIT} gets the characters length of FRUIT

Here are a few helpful operators

Parsing Arguments (while and case statements)

This is probably going to be the best part. Now that you've learned a few cool tricks, let's look at passing arguments with some sort of API.

Our goal in this section will be to create a script that will print information about a user. For example, the following command:

./script --name Ahmed --height 6ft --occupation "Professional Procrastinator" --username coolestGuyEver23

which will print:

Hello, my name is Ahmed. I'm 6ft tall.
I work as a Professional Procrastinator and my username is coolestGuyEver23

Note that order of arguments should not matter

let's get to it!

first, we need a way to parse the arguments --name Ahmed --height 6ft --occupation= Developer --username coolestGuyEver23 to variables. see this SO answer

first let's look at bash's built in $# and shift
$# returns the number of arguments passed. for example:

#!/usr/bin/env bash

echo $#

If you run ./script arg1 arg2 arg3, the output would be 3

shift

The shift command is one of the Bourne shell built-ins that comes with Bash. This command takes one argument, a number. The positional parameters are shifted to the left by this number, N. The positional parameters from N+1 to $# are renamed to variable names from $1 to $# - N+1.

This is better explained with an example:

#!/usr/bin/env bash

echo $#
shift 2
echo $#
shift
echo $#
echo $@

running ./script arg1 arg2 arg3 arg4 arg5 (total 5 arguments) prints:

5
3
2
arg4 arg5

huh? so shift 2 basically removed arg1 and arg2 then we executed shift again and removed arg3. Note that $@ is another builtin that prints the arguments.

Now is a good time to tell you how to access arguments sort-of like an array. You can use $1 for first arg, $2 for second arg, $3 for third arg.. and so on.

example:

#!/usr/bin/env bash

echo $1
echo $3
echo $2

running:

./script arg1 arg2 arg3

prints:

arg1
arg3
arg2

how do we use all that info? take a look at this:

while [[ $# -gt 0 ]]; do
    key="$1"
    echo $key
    shift
done

It might have clicked by now! Using the while loop above, with exit condition [[ $# -gt 0 ]] and shift to reduce $# we can loop over all passed args!

let's make it better with a case statement, let's start simple and parse name and height only

#!/usr/bin/env bash

while [[ $# -gt 0 ]]
do
key="$1"
case $key in
    # parse name arg
    -n|--name)
        NAME="$2"   # the value is right after the key
        shift       # past argument (`--name`)
        shift       # past value
    ;;
    # parse height arg
    -h|--height)
        HEIGHT="$2"
        shift # past argument
        shift # past value
    ;;
    # unknown option
    *)
        echo "Unknown argument: $key"
        shift # past argument
    ;;
esac
done

echo "NAME: $NAME"
echo "HEIGHT: $HEIGHT"

Notes:

  1. each case is separated with a pipe | for example -n|--name) matches -n OR --name
  2. we used shift two times to move past the argument flag and the argument value
  3. More on case statement
  4. We are exiting after finding the first match by using ;;. Matching unknown options is at the bottom.

Rut it:

./run.sh --name Ahmed --height 6ft

or shorter

./run.sh -n Ahmed -h 6ft

prints:

NAME: Ahmed
HEIGHT: 6ft

putting it all together:

#!/usr/bin/env bash

while [[ $# -gt 0 ]]
do
key="$1"
case $key in
    # parse name arg
    -n|--name)
        NAME="$2"   # the value is right after the key
        shift       # past argument (`--name`)
        shift       # past value
    ;;
    # parse height arg
    -h|--height)
        HEIGHT="$2"
        shift        # past argument
        shift        # past value
    ;;
    # parse user arg
    -u|--user)
        USER="$2"
        shift # past argument
        shift # past value
    ;;
    # parse occupation argument
    -o|--occupation)
        OCCUPATION="$2"
        shift # past argument
        shift # past value
    ;;
    # parse code quality argument
    -u|--username)
        USERNAME="$2"
        shift # past argument
        shift # past value
    ;;
    # unknown option
    *)
        echo "Unknown argument: $key"
        shift # past argument
    ;;
esac
done

echo "Hello, my name is $NAME. I'm $HEIGHT tall.
I work as a $OCCUPATION and my username is $USERNAME"

and run it:

./run.sh --name ahmed --height 6ft --occupation "professional procrastinator" --username coolestGuyEver23

or

./run.sh -n ahmed -h 6ft -o "professional procrastinator" -u coolestGuyEver23

result:

Hello, my name is ahmed. I'm 6ft tall.
I work as a professional procrastinator and my username is coolestGuyEver23

Note, remember Using a default value section above? you can use that to add default values in case a param was not passed.

Evaluating Commands

you can assemble a a command as a string then use eval to execute it. For example, remember that long maven command from the beginning of the post?

mvn clean install -PautoInstallPackage -Dcrx.user=user1 -Dcrx.password=pass1

We can break that up and assemble it:

Assuming I already parsed PROFILE, USER and PASSWORD

PROFILE="${PROFILE:-autoInstallPackage}"
USER="${USER:-user1}"
PASSWORD="${PASSWORD:-pass1}"

COMMAND="mvn clean install -P$PROFILE -Dcrx.user=$USER -Dcrx.password=$PASSWORD"

eval $COMMAND

and the command will be executed.

eval might not be the best choice for all cases. It is completely fine in this case since I am the only one running the script and not the end users. So exercise caution when using eval, in any programming language.

The script above can be re-written without eval as:

PROFILE="${PROFILE:-autoInstallPackage}"
USER="${USER:-user1}"
PASSWORD="${PASSWORD:-pass1}"
mvn clean install "-P$PROFILE" "-Dcrx.user=$USER" "-Dcrx.password=$PASSWORD" 

Thanks @lietux

Functions

Functions are simple and straightforward. Here is a function that prints the first argument passed to it:

#!/usr/bin/env bash

printFirstOnly(){
  echo $1
}
# execute it
printFirstOnly hello world

prints hello only

Function arguments are accessed with the $N variable where N is the argument number.

I like to use functions to pretty print things:

pretty() {
  printf "***\n$1\n***\n"
}

pretty "hi there"

prints:

***
hi there
***

You can use it for whatever purpose, however.

Conclusion

If you've reached this, then I've done something right :) I'd love to hear your feedback on the post in general. Was it organized? scattered? did it make sense? was it helpful? and what can I do to improve it?

Posted on by:

ahmedmusallam profile

Ahmed Musallam

@ahmedmusallam

Lead Developer: Adobe Experience Manager. Father of one. Minnesota. Occasionally write here: ahmedmusallam.com and there: https://blogs.perficientdigital.com/author/amusallam/

Discussion

markdown guide
 


#!/usr/bin/env sh

You might want to consider replacing sh with bash if you want to actually do BASH scripting. They are different interpreters, and one can lead to vastly different set of available features depending on platform you run it on, while the other will (correctly) crash if the missing features (namely BASH) is missing on the system.

 

I started this post to talk about shell scripting in general. but I think I think you’re right, its confusing that way. I’ll change the shebang to be bash exclusive. Thank you for the feedback!

 

Both are definitely valid options, just if you want to write for bash then it's better to avoid ambiguity about it. When writing with support for BSD, Busybox, etc. environments in mind (e.g. inside Alpine Linux), sh is the better option, just comes with some extra baggage.

 

Excellent article, and very helpful comment discussions as well! The concise descriptions with supporting examples makes it a quick and effective read.

Anyway, wish I had read an article like this 9 months ago-- the information about shift, loops and functions would have gone a long way in the scripts I've been writing to provision our Ubuntu Vagrant VMs for use as localhost web dev environments.

Looking forward to applying some of this. Thx for posting!

 

Just as a quick comment - you should check out actual provisioning tools, such as SaltStack and Ansible if you want reproducible environments (or event driven infrastructure actions, secret management, easily distributable remote command execution, etc. etc.)

 

Glad you liked it! Honestly, I wrote it after struggling with bash for a few weeks. I was copying and pasting things I did not understand exactly how they worked.. mainly that while-shift loop.

 

Instead of referring to some online articles on test conditions, you can just check out man test.

Conditions and most other such things are good to shorthand a bit, and if you're planning on using BASH use [[ ... ]] instead of [ ... ] as they also function differently. Stick to one style for predictability. serverfault.com/a/52050

Slightly compacted formats

if [[ "$FOO" == "1" ]]; then
  ...
else
  ...
fi

for i in 1 2 3 4; do
  echo $i
done

while [[ true ]]; do
  ...
done

Also shellcheck.net/ is an excellent resource to use to check your scripts for common bugs etc. There's even a decent unit testing framework for BASH scripts nowadays: github.com/sstephenson/bats

 

This is fantastic! I’m still new to bash scripting :) but will include this in the article. Great feedback!!

 

I have updated the post, thank you again for the feedback!

 

Oh, another thing I just noticed. Generally people like to think "eval is evil", and while imo eval has it's place, especially in BASH, you can avoid using eval with various tricks.

JAVA=$(which java)
APP=$1
EXTRA=""
if [[ "$NEED_EXTRA" == "1" ]]; then
  EXTRA="--extra arg"
fi

"$JAVA" "$APP" $EXTRA

It's got a lot to do with how variable expansion and quoting works.

So in your specific example

COMMAND="mvn clean install -P$PROFILE -Dcrx.user=$USER -Dcrx.password=$PASSWORD"

eval $COMMAND

I would instead write that as

PROFILE="${PROFILE:-autoInstallPackage}"
USER="${USER:-user1}"
PASSWORD="${PASSWORD:-pass1}"
mvn clean install "-P$PROFILE" "-Dcrx.user=$USER" "-Dcrx.password=$PASSWORD"
 

I agree with you that eval, in most languages is viewed as evil. But that's largely because it might be used in applications with a lot of end users, where it is possible for something malicious to happen.

In this case, and for bash, the scripts are for productivity where you (the developer) or your immediate team are the one's running them and they are not meant for production applications.

Overall, I think it is worth pointing that out in the post :)

 

Thanks Ahmed for this concsice article covers shell scripting essentials which will help in writingand understanding the bash file...my doubt is 1. Do we need to use only the uppercase for the variable?....2. what is the difference between the sh and bash ..what is default in Mac terminal....

 

Hey, Glad you liked it!

  1. Using uppercase variable names is a naming convention you'll see in most scripts out there. You can chose a different convention :) nothing is stopping you :)
  2. sh stands for shell. bash is a shell. Read @maxwell_dev's post at the beginning of the article.
 

Using uppercase is a convention for variables from the parent environment. Lowercase for variables that are local to our script.
I see people use uppercase all the time, but it's usually just because a lot of scripts don't need local variables and that's how they learnt.
I mean, it doesn't really matter... but I am the cheerleader for Team Lowercase.

 

Aww thank you so much for the shout-out in the start! This looks like a great post as well, I've got it on my list to look through in more detail and take notes on the most useful scripts and commands :)

 

you got it! yours was an excellent read :)

 
 

Lots of thanks for such a wonderful article

 

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