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Kat Maddox
Kat Maddox

Posted on • Updated on • Originally published at

How to Learn Penetration Testing: A Beginners Tutorial

Disclaimer: Hacking is a difficult skill to learn. You will not become a good pentester by just doing a few online courses. You will not become a good pentester by just installing Kali Linux and learning how to use the tools. This is a challenging path, wrought with endless frustrations, and you will not learn how to travel it well within a day - a month - or even a year. However, if you're determined, you'll find pentesting to be an incredibly rewarding field and you might never want to leave.

In this tutorial, I'll specifically cover the web application hacking side of penetration testing. This is a guide for ethical hacking. If you're doing the unethical sort, I'd really rather you not. Or at least give me part of your profits, please.

Assumed knowledge:

  • Basic technical background (Unix commands, some software development skills)
  • Intense desire to break things

0 - The Background Knowledge

Some CS101 knowledge is a must. Trying to learn how to hack without even being comfortable with Unix commands wouldn't just be like trying to run before you can walk. It'd be like flying an A380 without knowing which direction up is.

communication skills

If you try to jump into pentesting without the necessary prior knowledge and "fill the gaps" as you go along, you'll struggle needlessly. Here's what you'll need to know:

How to Linux: The main power of Linux/Unix for coding and pentesting comes from the terminal and the sheer number of tools available. You can try to do everything you need in Windows, but it's not going to be easy - and if you're getting into pentesting, you'll need to know some Linux eventually. Trust me: if you get a job in security and your coworkers find out you've never used Linux, they'll laugh at you forever.

You have three main options here:

  • Get an install of a Linux distribution (such as Ubuntu). Your best option for this is to download a virtual machine software where you can contain your Linux install (links down below).
  • Keep using macOS, if you have it. You can make do with this since the terminal and tools on Macs are pretty much the same as Linux.
  • Use Ubuntu on Windows 10. I'd consider this the worst option for a beginner because it can be pretty unreliable when it comes to installing tools, and getting the GUI to work can sometimes be a nightmare.

  • VirtualBox: Free virtual machine software

  • Ubuntu: Decent Linux starting distro

  • Install Ubuntu in VirtualBox

  • Unix commands for Beginners

How to Code: Now that you have your environment set up, we can get to the fun bit! Learning some basic coding skills is essential to pentesting. If you want to learn how to break it, first learn how to make it. For web application pentesting, you'll want to learn some full stack stuff such as HTML, CSS, Javascript, and Python. Python has the added benefit of being a great language for scripting and will allow you to write your own pentesting tools (exciting!).

1 - Set up Your Environment

If you're a dev, you probably have your perfect setup already. Gratz! The way to go here is usually Linux or Mac. Personally, I use Ubuntu on Windows 10 (sue me) but only because I know all my favorite tools work on it.

Many beginners start with Kali, but I recommend against this. Part of becoming a confident pentester is building your library of tools. Kali hands you a bunch of tools, none of which you'll really understand and appreciate.

But whatever you're doing, it's absolutely crucial that you have a comfortable setup. Take some time now to fix any issues you might have in your setup (like bootloaders, window managers, GUI, etc). Pentesting can get messy when you have countless windows and complicated tools open, and the last thing you need is your own environment working against you.

2 - Learn the Theory

No way around this one. Even in just web application hacking, there's a whole breadth of knowledge you need to know. I'd split web hacking knowledge into two categories: The Basics, and the Nifty Tricks. The Basics are what you should learn first from books, videos, online tutorials, etc.

Unfortunately, given how quickly the world of hacking moves, most competent websites are already secure against The Basics (but you still need to know them!). The Nifty Tricks are the real moneymakers. You'll learn these later through browsing experienced pentesters blogs, joining ethical hacking communities, and obscure Youtube videos. If you're the first to discover a Nifty Trick, you get a place in The Hall of Fame and maybe lots of money.

Here are some great resources for The Basics:

Once you've learned and practiced The Basics (more on how to practice in the next section), you can move on to learning some Nifty Tricks. Some resources:

  • DEF CON videos are great.
  • Vulnerability writeups: There's a lot of places to find them, and Medium can be a good one. Check out r/Netsec too. Also Google the vulnerability you want to learn more about with the word "writeup" or "POC" appended, e.g. "XSS writeup". You'll find posts from very clever people about new ways they've found to exploit stuff.
  • Look for pentesting communities and join them. Hacking, surprisingly, is a very social field, and a lot of cool tricks can be learned just by talking to other pentesters.

3 - Practice with CTFs and Wargames

This is the fun bit. Once you have some theory down, you can start practicing by doing hacking challenges. These are vulnerable web applications with hidden "flags" that you find by exploiting the application.

CTF (Capture the Flag) competitions are live events with scoreboards and teams, while wargames are less competitive and are more like playgrounds to practice your skills on.

Check out CTFtime for current and upcoming CTFs, although most of these will be too difficult for a beginner. Good wargames are OWASP's WebGoat and OverTheWire. Also check out OWASP's Juice Shop, Hacker101 CTF, Hack The Box, and Google's XSS game.

While fun and a great way to learn, note that the skills you need for wargames/CTFs are somewhat different from the skills you need for real-life applications such as bug bounties. It's possible to be a top scorer in CTFs, but be utterly incapable of doing bug bounties (this was me for a while) and vice versa.

Wargames are to bug bounties what Civ5 is to running an actual country. Wargames teach you some excellent strategy and puzzle solving skills, but real life is a different landscape - more on this in Section 5.

4 - Get Good at Scripting

This will make your life much, much easier. Python is amazing as a scripting language, especially for hacking. A lot of CTFs and bug bounties will require brute force actions such as sending many packets and hashing, all of which can be done easily by writing your own Python scripts.

Check out pwntools, a Python CTF framework. It simplifies exploit writing! Here's how you send packets.

I recommend making a folder where you keep your own Python scripts and build on them over time. I really can't understate how much time this will save you.

5 - The Real World and Bug Bounties

At some point, you'll get the flag for your first moderately difficult CTF challenge without having to Google the solution. And you'll feel amazing. Likely, you'd have spent hours and hours on it, and finally figuring out the answer on your own will be a feeling that'll get you hooked on pentesting forever.

You're a hunter now. Fierce. Unstoppable.

communication skills

You might even think that you're ready to start making money now. But once you check bug bounty sites, you'll realize you have no idea what you're doing. There are no clues telling you where vulnerabilities are. There's such a wide attack surface that you don't even know where to start. And thousands of better hackers have already wiped the site clean.

As disheartening as it might be, this is the point where the fun really starts. You're out of the playground and ready to play with the big kids now. A good starting point is watching this DEF CON video I linked earlier and digging into finding good tools and more Nifty Tricks.

Now is the time to start learning web reconnaissance. It's covered well in the DEF CON video, and you'll learn more about it as you build your library of recon tools.

6 - Know thy Tools

Tools don't make a hacker. But you're probably not going to get too far without them.

I recommend starting off with just downloading a couple of the "mandatory" tools like Nmap and Burp Suite. Nmap is a discovery tool that finds hosts and open ports on domains, generally giving you a good feel for what the network looks like. And Burp Suite is your new best friend. Seriously. It's the #1 multitool of web hacking. Its main use is capturing and editing packets, but it does so much more. I really can't give it justice in this blog post - just google it and watch some tutorial videos.

After those two, it's up to you to find (or make) the tools that suit you best. Here are some of my favorites:

  • Sublist3r: I'm absolutely in love with this subdomain enumerator. It's crazy quick and finds a bunch of stuff.
  • Aquatone: Similar to Sublist3r but much more robust. Trades speed for power; I usually run Sublist3r first and then keep Aquatone in the background.
  • dirsearch: Directory bruteforcer.
  • LinkFinder: Discovers endpoints in Javascript files.
  • recon-ng: An entire framework for web reconnaissance that does pretty much everything. Will probably walk your dog and cook dinner for you if you find the right setting.
  • SecLists: Not a tool per se, but a collection of lists for bruteforcing. Pretty much a staple of web pentesting - I'd almost put it in the mandatory section.
  • Spotify hacking mixtapes for feeling cool

7 - Keep Hacking

I told you it'd be difficult, didn't I?

Pentesting is challenging, confusing, and overall just frustrating. But if this is something you really want to do, you'll find ways to overcome all of that.

Try to join communities, such as the ones on Twitter and Bugcrowd, since the journey is always more fun with others.

And remember: this is a field that really matters. It's rewarding, and you'll be doing legitimate good for the world. Blackhat hackers are learning every day too, and the ethical hacking community needs all the help it can get. Good luck, and godspeed!

This post was originally published on

Top comments (16)

al_khovansky profile image
Alexander Khovansky

Great article! Many useful tools listed.
That Civ5/real country analogy made me chuckle, so true.
Too often on HackTheBox labs you find something conveniently hidden in plain sight that contains plaintext password, or weak password hash from the top of rockyou.txt wordlist in Kali.
Haven't had this much luck with real world environments so far.

ctrlshifti profile image
Kat Maddox

Thanks Alexander! :)
Yeah I was a little iffy on whether to add HTB at all but I figured it was probably good for beginners, to at least build up confidence.
I was definitely in for a shock when I went from ctfs to the real world!

garrett profile image
Garrett / G66

I just turned 31 and have been doing internet marketing (mostly SEO) for the last 10+ years. I’m ready for a career change.

I’m fascinated by this kind of stuff but it feels like I’m too late and too old to start now. Any advice?

ctrlshifti profile image
Kat Maddox

No way you are NOT too old!! Hacking might seem like an intimidating field to enter, especially because so many of the "pros" have been doing it since they were kids. But there's just as many amazing pentesters who entered the field later in their career.

Plus, security is such a diverse area, with so many people from different backgrounds. Having experience in internet marketing could give you a totally different, very valuable perspective that others don't have.

garrett profile image
Garrett / G66

I have found my SEO experience has made me particularly good at OSINT.

Thread Thread
ctrlshifti profile image
Kat Maddox

Hell yeah!! That's awesome!

adamcduncan profile image
Adam Duncan

I’m interested in ethical hacking and this was a really great intro piece. Thanks for taking the time to do it!

ctrlshifti profile image
Kat Maddox

Awesome! Good luck :)

almostconverge profile image
Peter Ellis

What I would add is that all of this exercise and tool knowledge is also very useful for every single web developer who builds customer-facing applications.

ctrlshifti profile image
Kat Maddox

Absolutely! I think security is a pretty neglected side of development. Then again, if web devs followed security practices, I probably wouldn't have a job.

artis3n profile image
Ari Kalfus

OWASP Juice Shop is a great intermediate between "ok I've done Webgoat and some OverTheWire servers" and "let me at the ctfs." It's ctf-style but it's hints give more guardrails. And you get infinite time to play on it. I'm sure you're aware of juice shop but I was surprised it wasn't mentioned here.

ctrlshifti profile image
Kat Maddox

Good call. Added Juice Shop!

syamillim profile image
Syamil Lim

Great post! Cyber Security is a major topics in my country because our citizen use more online payment system. Would like to learn more cyber security stuff but im alreadny 46 Y.o and i think too old for this.

almokhtar profile image
almokhtar bekkour

Thanks, that was useful!

ctrlshifti profile image
Kat Maddox

So glad to hear that! :)

abdurrahmaanj profile image
Abdur-Rahmaan Janhangeer