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Henrik Sommerfeld
Henrik Sommerfeld

Posted on • Originally published at

Alpine.js – Benefits and Limitations

This post is part of my Hugo Pipeline Series, but the benefits and limitations I discuss are not specific to using Alpine.js together with Hugo.

What is Alpine.js and why?

Alpine.js is meant to be used with an existing HTML document (server-side rendered HTML that isn't produced by a JavaScript framework), just like plain JavaScript or jQuery. This is the way it was done when JavaScript was introduced and how it's done today when using Hugo.

I use JavaScript for the following features on my blog:

  • Opening and closing a hamburger menu
  • Lazy loading of images
  • Lightbox for images and code
  • Providing site search
  • Easter eggs
  • Comments and analytics (but that's not my code)

I started out using jQuery when migrating the blog from WordPress to Hugo, which I think was the obvious choice at the time. Later I migrated to plain JavaScript. That was fairly straight forward and the code looked quite similar after the migration, although a bit lengthier. This worked fine and I didn't need a library at all, so why add one again?

Looking at what the JavaScript I have is doing, we can see where I can benefit from using a library:

  • Changing CSS classes on an element, mostly body
  • Adding event listeners to handle interactions
  • Rendering search results

In all these areas I benefit from using declarative code, it's just less code and easier to read. This is where Alpine.js comes in. Alpine.js has borrowed a lot from Vue.js when it comes to syntax, but work with an existing DOM. I haven't used Vue.js and that can make you feed a bit excluded when the documentation explains something by saying that "it works just like in Vue.js". It is however a small API, so I found it easy to get started with.

An example with keyboard navigation

This is the relevant code I use for showing/hiding outline for the element that has focus, based on whether the user is navigating by mouse or keyboard.


<body x-data="" :class="{ 'keyboard-navigation' : keyboardNavigation }"
  @mouseup="keyboardNavigation = false""keyboardNavigation = true"></body>

JavaScript = {
  keyboardNavigation: false


body.keyboard-navigation a:focus {
  outline: 2px solid var(--accent-color);

Doing this with imperative code is simply messier, so this is one example where Alpine.js helps.

An example with search results

Another example is the search results I present. This is a situation where I could just add any of the popular JavaScript frameworks, since this part of the page creates the HTML in JavaScript. This is also a situation where pure JavaScript quickly gets messy, like concatenating strings and setting innerHTML, especially if you need event listeners on those new elements.

<div class="search-results-container">
  <div id="search-output" x-show="search.textInSearchBox">
    <div id="no-results-message" x-show=" && search.textInSearchBox && !search.hits.length">
      No matching posts found. You can use wildcards and search only in titles, e.g. <code>title:iot</code>
    <div id="index-loading-message" x-show="!search.indexLoadFailed && search.indexLoading && search.textInSearchBox">
      <span class="icon-spinner" aria-hidden="true"></span> Loading search index, please wait...
    <div id="index-failed-message" x-show="search.indexLoadFailed && search.textInSearchBox">
      Search index failed to download 😢
    <div id="number-of-hits-message" x-text="search.getHitsText()" x-show="search.hits.length"></div>
    <ol class="result-list" x-show="search.hits.length" x-ref="hits">
      <template x-for="hit in search.hits" :key="hit.ref">
          <h2><a :href='hit.ref' x-text="search.fromStore(hit).title"></a></h2>
          <div class="entry-meta">
            <time class="published" :datetime="search.fromStore(hit).dateiso">
              <svg class="icon icon-calendar"><use xlink:href="#icon-calendar"></use></svg>
              <span x-text="search.fromStore(hit).dateformatted"></span>
          <p x-text="search.fromStore(hit).summary"></p>

search is the object that contains the functions and properties being referenced in this mark-up. It's in a separate JavaScript file not included here, but hopefully you get the point of the declarative approach instead of doing this in imperative JavaScript.


Hopefully I've been able to highlight some of the benefits in the examples above, but to conclude:

  • Easy to get started with
  • Same kind of declarative data binding that we love with other JavaScript frameworks


Now to the interesting stuff, things that Alpine.js not so good for – the stuff you generally don't find in documentation or tutorials.

  • You cannot have nested components or have them communicate easily.
  • The page (DOM) isn't updated when updates are triggered by non-interactive events.
  • Doesn't work with Turbolinks

In the case of my blog, I made the body tag the Alpine component, which works just fine as I'm mostly setting different CSS classes on the body tag anyway. For a more complex use, A guide to Alpine.js component communication describes how you can have sibling components talk to each other and have the DOM react to non-interactive events, see answer on GitHub. A non-interactive event is when the user hasn't clicked or typed anything, such as when data is fetched (a promise is resolved) and you set that data to a property.

The theme switcher I have reacts to theme (light/dark) changes in the operating system and also when the theme setting in localStorage is changed. The code I have to listen for those events can update a property bound to the Alpine component, but it won't update the DOM. Rather than implementing some involved dispatch mechanism, I prefer to use pure DOM manipulation for these situation, starting with document.getElementById() and setting the element's properties.

Another thing to note is that if you're using Turbolinks (which gives navigation without full page reloads), it doesn't seem to work with Alpine.js.


Overall, I think the migration from plain JavaScript to Alpine.js was worth it for me. The code is easier to read now and that's what I was aiming for. I just wish I understood the limitations earlier, that would have saved some time.

There are also features of Alpine.js that I don't use, namely animations and x-ref when using a .js file. Maybe this is because I came from a world of plain JavaScript and animations in CSS. It seems that the convention when using Alpine.js is to include all JavaScript in <script> tags rather than separate .js files. I didn't go that route and found that document.getElementById() works just as well as passing x-refs around (they don't seem to work in .js files otherwise). Using a <script> tag is probably better as long as the code is as simple as in my keyboard navigation example above, but as it grows, I find it better to use a separate file 🤷‍♂️

Top comments (1)

skttl profile image
Søren Kottal

Love your keyboard navigation example. So clever! Thanks for sharing!