This post is the first part of a series about Kubernetes. Rather than a series of tutorials, this is meant to be a periodic log of my journey learning the concepts and tools regarding orchestration using Kubernetes.
As I intended to learn how to use Kubernetes (not managing it), I started a Kubernetes cluster in Google Cloud Platform and worked from there. Hence, I will not address Kubernetes cluster installation and configuration in this series. For more details on how to use the GCP Kubernetes cluster, click here.
First: the concepts
One thing that always helps me better understand and learn a new technology or tool is to understand what is the purpose of the tool or technology, what it is used for, and get the concepts right.
Making sure you understand the basic concepts is a great help in the road ahead of improving your knowledge of the tool/technology you're learning.
So, let's start by understanding what is Kubernetes.
Kubernetes is an orchestration tool that allows us to manage containerized applications across a group of nodes. Not only providing mechanisms to quickly run those but also how to update, deploy and provide access to them.
Pod: the atom in the Kubernetes universe
A pod is the smallest unit inside the Kubernetes cluster and it represents a collection of application containers and volumes running in the same isolated execution environment. Each container in the same Pod shares the same IP address, namespace, and storage.
Although I described a pod as a collection of containers, the most common pattern is to have one container per pod. If you need to think twice about group multiple containers in the same pod, ask yourself
Will these containers work properly if they land on different machines?
If the answer is "no", you should indeed group those containers in the same pod, otherwise, just don't do it.
Kubectl: the basics
Before going any further, let's see some basic capabilities of kubectl (Kubernetes command-line tool).
Version and Status
To ensure kubectl and Kubernetes is working properly, you can run:
And you should see something like the image below, where it's listed the version of your Kubernetes cluster and client.
Furthermore, you can also check the status of your Kubernetes cluster main components with:
kubectl get componentstatuses
Which should provide you with an output similar to this one:
To get information about the nodes that make up the Kubernetes cluster and can be scheduled with work run the following command:
kubectl get nodes
This command, as you can see in the following image, gives you a list with some basic information for every node of your cluster. As I said earlier, my cluster is on Google Cloud Platform, so, depending on your setup (a local cluster or a cluster in another cloud provider), the output may be a little different.
Now, to quickly show you about pods, let's create one by running:
kubectl run kubernetes-hello-world --image=paulbouwer/hello-kubernetes:1.9 --port=8080
kubectl run is not the ideal way to do things, but let's do it for the sake of the example. In the next post, we will explore the right way to define resources (the declarative way). You should see an output similar to this one:
Now, if you run:
kubectl get pods
You will get the following output, where you can see the pod that was created with the
kubectl run command.
You can also check more details with other commands such as
logs, as follows:
kubectl describe pods kubernetes-hello-world kubectl logs kubernetes-hello-world
The first gives you a detailed description of the specified pod, as shown below:
Name: kubernetes-hello-world Namespace: default Priority: 0 Node: gke-kuar-cluster-default-pool-41051aa0-hs4q/10.138.15.194 Start Time: Thu, 11 Mar 2021 17:44:41 +0000 Labels: run=kubernetes-hello-world Annotations: <none> Status: Running IP: 10.96.14.3 IPs: IP: 10.96.14.3 Containers: kubernetes-hello-world: Container ID: docker://db09b9c745c03f3e757f1f386f5df8e04e48faaace587cfa72ed1f3e6a751300 Image: paulbouwer/hello-kubernetes:1.9 Image ID: docker-pullable://paulbouwer/hello-kubernetes@sha256:be6b5ba3abdca6e01689e0d1d27b41410fb5bf5793da407108a89ef355f362f0 Port: 8080/TCP Host Port: 0/TCP State: Running Started: Thu, 11 Mar 2021 17:44:50 +0000 Ready: True Restart Count: 0 Environment: <none> Mounts: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount from default-token-dzc9f (ro) Conditions: Type Status Initialized True Ready True ContainersReady True PodScheduled True Volumes: default-token-dzc9f: Type: Secret (a volume populated by a Secret) SecretName: default-token-dzc9f Optional: false QoS Class: BestEffort Node-Selectors: <none> Tolerations: node.kubernetes.io/not-ready:NoExecute op=Exists for 300s node.kubernetes.io/unreachable:NoExecute op=Exists for 300s Events: Type Reason Age From Message ---- ------ ---- ---- ------- Normal Scheduled 23m default-scheduler Successfully assigned default/kubernetes-hello-world to gke-kuar-cluster-default-pool-41051aa0-hs4q Normal Pulling 23m kubelet Pulling image "paulbouwer/hello-kubernetes:1.9" Normal Pulled 23m kubelet Successfully pulled image "paulbouwer/hello-kubernetes:1.9" Normal Created 23m kubelet Created container kubernetes-hello-world Normal Started 23m kubelet Started container kubernetes-hello-world
The second option gives you the logs related to the running container(s). These methods of debugging and inspection are available in every resource available in Kubernetes (Pods, Deployments, Services, etc).
One final way to debug your application besides the logs is to inspect and interact with the running container(s) with
kubectl exec -it kubernetes-hello-world -- sh
You can see one example of this interaction in the following image:
Finally, to delete the created pod, run:
If you like my explanation, you can follow me, I will publish the following parts of this series in the coming weeks.
Click here for the next part.
Top comments (19)
Amazing post Vasco, I'm really excited to follow this series and learn more about Kubernetes 🙌
Thanks a lot, João!
thanks a lot
Great post! I'll be waiting for what's coming next.
Great post! I'm waiting for the next ones. I like that people share what they are learning!
Hi José! Thanks a lot! I'm glad you've enjoyed it. If you're interested, I also have a GitHub repo where I've been adding some resources of tutorials and other stuff regarding Kubernetes. Check it out, if you want ;) (github.com/vascoalramos/kubernetes...)
This is so good! Congratz!
(tens futuro, miúdo! um abraço!)
Thanks for sharing your journey.
Suggestion: do a deep dive on the scheduler
Thanks, Nuno! I'll dig into that as soon as I can 😄
Well done!! Keep up the good job!
Can't wait to see more content from you! 😁
Thank you, Fábio! I'll be sure to write the following posts in the coming weeks! 😄
Great stuff! Keep up with the good work!
I just sign up here, so it's lucky to follow a topic from the beginning. Come on!
Hi! Thanks a lot for your feedback! I'll be posting the next posts in the following weeks as I'll progress in my Kubernetes journey 🙂
Great post, looking forward to next one!
Congrats Vasco! Quite interesting content, good job :)
Thank you, Joel! 😄