try statement is used to prevent errors while coding. You might try to pop from an empty list, process user input character as an int or divide by zero, this statement has got you covered!.
try: #statement1- try to execute, but if any error is returned, then do not execute except: #statement2- execute if any error occurs finally: #optional #Statement2- execute nevertheless
except statements provide a robust alternative for the if-else statement. But this comes at the cost of a little more difficulty while debugging, when unexpected errors are not displayed. This is somewhat similar too the
catch statements in C.
Here is a program which error checks if the user enters a number or not.
a=input("Please enter a number ") try: b=int(a) print(b) except: print("OOPS! You entered a non-numeric character! ") finally: print("End of program!")
Please enter a number 6 6 End of program!
Please enter a number g OOPS! You entered a non-numeric character! End of program!
According to the python documentation here, there are three types of errors as shown-
>>> 10 * (1/0) Traceback (most recent call last): File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module> ZeroDivisionError: division by zero >>> 4 + spam*3 Traceback (most recent call last): File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module> NameError: name 'spam' is not defined >>> '2' + 2 Traceback (most recent call last): File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module> TypeError: Can't convert 'int' object to str implicitly
We can specify multiple error handling as shown-
try: print(x) except ZeroDivisionError: print("Cannot divide by zero.") except: print("Something else went wrong")
The except statement is compulsory, means that even if you do not want anything to happen if there is an exception, you still have to write it. Here is where the
pass statement comes into play. The
pass statement is basically a 'no-operation' statement in Python.
try: #try to execute except: pass #do nothing
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