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linux : basic commands

zakiarsyad profile image Zaki Arrozi Arsyad Updated on ・3 min read

Basic linux (12 Part Series)

1) linux : running on mac machine 2) linux : vagrantfile configuration 3 ... 10 3) linux : basic commands 4) linux : file manipulation 5) linux : regex 6) linux : archiving & compression 7) linux : find 8) linux : rsync vs scp 9) linux : user management and permission 10) linux : package and service management 11) linux : bash script 12) linux : bash script conditions

Linux is closely related to the command line. Even though some people prefer to use graphic user interface (GUI), we will using command-line interface (CLI). CLI is more effective and powerful. Some process can be done in one line of commands in seconds.

These some basic commands that I use often.

1. Navigation

  • pwd : print working directory
  • cd : change directory
    • cd : go to home
    • cd {dir_path} : go to directory path
    • cd .. : on directory above
    • cd - : back to last directory path
  • ls : list
    • ls -a : list all (include hidden file and folder)
    • ls -l : long list
    • ls -la : long list all

2. Directory / file management

  • touch : create a new file
  • mkdir : create a new folder
  • rm : remove
    • rm {file_name} : delete a file
    • rm -r {dir_name} : delete a folder
  • rmdir : remove directory, only allows to delete empty directory
  • cp : copy
    • cp {old_file} {new_file} : copy a file
    • cp -r {old_dir} {new_dir} : copy a folder and all sub folder
  • mv : move
    • mv {old_file_path} {new_file_path} : move a file or folder
    • mv {old_file_name} {new_file_name} : rename a file or folder
  • locate {file_name} : search a file or folder
    • locate -i {file_name} : search file with case sensitive
  • find {dir_path} {file_name} : search a file or folder inside a directory
  • tar : archive multiple files into a tarball
  • zip : compress files into a zip archive
  • unzip : extract the zipped files

3. File view and editing

  • nano : view and edit with nano
  • vim : view and edit with vim
  • cat : view file
    • cat > {file_name} : create a new file
    • cat {file_1} > {file_2} : copy file 1to file 2
    • cat {file_1} >> {file_2} : append file 1 content to file 2
  • grep {keyword} {file_name} : search through all the text in a given file
  • head : view the first lines of any text file, by default it will showing first 10 lines
    • head -n 5 {file_name} : display first 5 lines of the file
  • tail : view the last lines of any text file, by default it will showing - first 10 lines
    • tail -n 5 {file_name} : display last 5 lines of the file

4. Manual guide

  • man : manual
    • man cp : display full guide for copy command
  • --help : help
    • cp --help : display short guide for copy command

5. System commands

  • sudo : SuperUser Do, enables to perform tasks that require administrative or root permissions
  • command1; command2; command3 : run multiple commands
  • command1 && command2 && command3 : run the next commands after the first one is successful
  • useradd {username} : add a new user
    • passwd {password} : set the password
  • userdel : delete a user
  • chmod {options} {file_name} : change the read, write, and execute permissions of files and directories
    • chmod u=rwx,g=rx,o=r {file_name}
    • u : user
    • g : group
    • o : other
    • r : read
    • w : write
    • x : execute
  • chown {username} {file_name} : change or transfer the ownership of a file
  • uname : print detailed information about your Linux system
  • hostname : display the name of host/network
    • hostname -i : display the IP address of the network
  • wget {link} : download from the internet
  • ps : display information about the currently running processes, including their process identification numbers (PIDs)
  • kill {pid} : terminate an unresponsive program
  • df : get a report on the system’s disk space usage
    • df -h : display disk space statistics
    • df -m : display disk space statistics in megabytes
  • du -h : display disk usage
  • free -m : show free memory
  • cat /proc/cpuinfo : display cpu info
  • htop / top : monitor system resources
  • history : review the commands we’ve entered before
  • clear : clean out the terminal

6. Keyboard shourcut

  • ctrl + C : safe kill
  • ctrl + Z : sometimes there are child processes that still running in the background
  • ctrl + A : moves to the beginning of the line
  • ctrl + E : moves to the end of the line

Basic linux (12 Part Series)

1) linux : running on mac machine 2) linux : vagrantfile configuration 3 ... 10 3) linux : basic commands 4) linux : file manipulation 5) linux : regex 6) linux : archiving & compression 7) linux : find 8) linux : rsync vs scp 9) linux : user management and permission 10) linux : package and service management 11) linux : bash script 12) linux : bash script conditions

Posted on May 23 by:

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