The `reduce`

array method is often introduced along with `map`

and `filter`

, but it is such a powerful method that I felt it deserved a post of its own. The traditional example used to introduce `reduce`

is the following function that will calculate the sum of all the elements in an array:

```
const array = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
const sum = array.reduce((a, b) => a + b);
```

From this example, you might start developing an intuition that this method *reduces* the elements in the array down to a single value, and it certainly can and does in many cases. However, since a value can be pretty much anything in JavaScript, the reduced result may not necessarily be a single primitive value or even smaller that the original array (if you can come up with some notion of size to compare them).

Here is the abstraction that reduce provides:

```
const array = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
const INITIAL_VALUE = 0;
const reduceFunction = (accumulator, element) => accumulator + element;
// Without reduce
let accumulator = INITIAL_VALUE;
for (let i = 0; i < array.length; i++) {
accumulator = reduceFunction(accumulator, array[i])
}
// With reduce
const accumulator = arrray.reduce(reduceFunction, INITIAL_VALUE);
```

The `reduceFunction`

, also known as the reducer, takes two values and returns a value of the same type as the first argument. This returned value is supplied as the first argument of the next iteration. If no initial value is given, the first element in the array will be used as the initial value. The implementation of the `reduce`

method on the array prototype makes it an instance of a Foldable, and Haskell calls this function `foldl`

(for fold from the left). Let's take a look at some things `reduce`

can do!

## Map

You can use `reduce`

to replace `map`

. The benefits of this approach are not immediately obvious, but it will be helpful when we cover transducers in the future.

```
const array = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
const mapFunc = (number) => number * 2;
// With map
const newarray = array.map(mapFunc);
// With reduce
const mapReducer = (func) => (accumulator, element) =>
[...accumulator, func(element)];
const newarray = array.reduce(mapReducer(mapFunc), []);
```

## Filter

You can use `reduce`

to replace `filter`

as well, and this will also be helpful when we talk about transducers.

```
const array = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
const predicate = (number) => number % 2 === 0;
// With filter
const newarray = array.filter(predicate);
// With reduce
const filterReducer = (predicate) => (accumulator, element) =>
predicate(element) ? [...accumulator, element] : accumulator;
const newarray = array.reduce(filterReducer(predicate), []);
```

## Various aggregates

Pretty much anything that you could think of creating from an array can be created using `reduce`

. I particularly like this implementation of creating the upper triangular matrix of an array. The reduce function takes an optional third argument which is the index of the element. (It also takes a fourth optional argument which is the array itself).

```
// Using nested for loops
const upperTriangle = (arr) => {
let triangle = [];
for (let first = 0; first < arr.length; first++) {
for (let second = first + 1; second < arr.length; second++) {
triangle.push([arr[first], arr[second]]);
}
}
return triangle;
};
// Using reduce and map
const upperTriangle = (arr) =>
arr.reduce((triangle, first, i) => {
const rest = arr.slice(i + 1);
const pairs = rest.map(second => [first, second]);
return [triangle, pairs].flat();
}, []);
```

## Function composition

You read that right. You can implement function composition with `reduce`

!

```
const toWords = (string) => string.split(" ");
const count = (array) => array.length;
const wpm = (wordCount) => wordCount * 80;
const speed = (string) =>
[toWords, count, wpm]
.reduce((composed, fn) => fn(composed), string);
```

## Recursive functions

If you can convert a recursive function to an iterative approach, you can also implement it using `reduce`

. Recursive functions are often used because of their semantic definitions, but using `reduce`

does not have the issue of potentially filling up the function call stack while enabling declarative definitions if done well.

```
const factorial = (number) =>
number === 0 ? 1 : number * factorial(number - 1);
const factorial = (number) =>
Array(number)
.fill(number)
.reduce((acc, elem, i) => acc * (elem - i));
```

## Sum and friends

Let's revisit the sum function that we started with. It turns out that there are a bunch of examples that follow a similar pattern:

```
const numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
const sum = numbers.reduce((a, b) => a + b, 0);
const product = numbers.reduce((a, b) => a * b, 1);
const min = numbers.reduce((a, b) => (a < b ? a : b), Infinity);
const max = numbers.reduce((a, b) => (a > b ? a : b), -Infinity);
const booleans = [true, false, false, true];
const any = booleans.reduce((a, b) => a || b, false);
const all = booleans.reduce((a, b) => a && b, true);
```

In all of these cases, the initial value can be left out, but I included them for clarity. All of these reducers take two elements of the same type and return another thing of the same type. This property combined with appropriate starting values (known as identities) forms the definition of a Monoid. In the next post, we will take a closer look at Monoids and the various places they come up in programming.

Hopefully this post has given you a better intuition for the uses of reduce. Combined with `map`

and `filter`

, I seldom find myself writing a for or while loop anymore. The imperative loops are more helpful if you have to *do* something a certain number of times, but as we'll see soon, it is better to work with expressions of values than simple statements.

## Top comments (9)

Wow! What a great response! Here are some more thoughts in no particular order:

If you've checked out some of my other posts, perhaps you've come across this one, where I explain why I think functional programming is worth learning. Anything worth learning should challenge what you already know or how you already think.

What about the upper triangle implementation is confusing? Do you prefer the nested for loop approach?

Typo in article title?

I love your Metho library, by the way! I haven't found a good use for it in my applications yet, but the implementation is really creative.

It took me way longer than I care to admit to figure out what the typo was... Thanks for catching it!

Do you have a problem with reduce in particular, or just functional programming in general? Could you suggest some alternatives to some of the problems that reduce solves?

I would be the first to admit that functional programming can seem inaccessible and impractical, so this is my attempt to explain the benefits of the paradigm.

In every area of life, it is wise to have a balance of creativity grounded in principles discovered by people who have come before.

I always avoid reduce and try to use any other es6 Array methods. But because of that, i don't have a lot of experience with reduce.

Nice post! Glad I could learn more about reduce

I like to think of reduce as the method that can do pretty much everything, but there are often methods that simplify certain functionalities even further such as map and filter. But if you wanted to map and filter during the same iteration, so example, reduce provides the necessary versatility.

Thanks for the suggestion! The built in every and some is definitely the way to go!